The Book Of Household Management
Mrs. (Isabella Mary) Beeton
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THE BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT;
THE BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT;
Comprising Information for the ALSO, SANITARY, MEDICAL, & LEGAL MEMORANDA;             Nothing lovelier can be found   In Woman, than to study household good.—MILTON. Published Originally By S. O. Beeton in 24 Monthly Parts 1859-1861. First Published in a Bound Edition 1861....
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PREFACE.
PREFACE.
I must frankly own, that if I had known, beforehand, that this book would have cost me the labour which it has, I should never have been courageous enough to commence it. What moved me, in the first instance, to attempt a work like this, was the discomfort and suffering which I had seen brought upon men and women by household mismanagement. I have always thought that there is no more fruitful source of family discontent than a housewife's badly-cooked dinners and untidy ways. Men are now so well
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CHAP.
CHAP.
NOTE.—Where a " p " occurs before the number for reference, the page , and not the paragraph, is to be sought. Accidents, injuries, &c. remarks on 2578 Agreements 2705-7 Alexanders 1108 Alkalis 2654 Allium, the genus 1129 Allspice 438 Almond, the 1219   Bitter 1220   Cake 1752   Cheesecakes 1219   Flowers 1316   Icing for cakes 1735   Paste, for second-course dishes 1220   Pudding, baked 1221   Puddings, small 1222   Puffs 1223   Soup 110   Tree 110, 1487   Uses of the Sweet 1221 Almonds
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ENGRAVINGS.
ENGRAVINGS.
Almond and blossom 110   Puddings 1222 Almonds and raisins 1598 Anchovy 226 Apple, and blossom 1226   Compote of 1515   Jelly stuck with almonds 1395 Apples, dish of 1598 Arrowroot 387 Artichoke, cardoon 1080   Jerusalem 1084 Artichokes 1080 Asparagus 114   On toast 1087   Tongs 1087 Bacon, boiled 804   For larding, and needles 828 Bain Marie 430 Bantams, black 939   Feather-legged 958 Barbel 229 Barberry 1245 Barley 116 Basil 417 Basin, pudding 1200 Basket, wire 494 Bay, the 512 Bean, broad 109
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COLOURED PLATES.
COLOURED PLATES.
Apples in custard Beef, round of, boiled       Roast sirloin of Calf's head, boiled Charlotte aux pommes Cod's head and shoulders Crab, dressed Duck, wild Ducks, couple of, roast Eggs, poached, and spinach Fowl, boiled with cauliflower      Roast, with watercresses Fruits, centre dish of various Goose, roast Grouse Ham, cold glazed Hare, roast Jelly, two colours of Lobsters, dressed Mackerel, boiled Mutton cutlets and mashed potatoes    Haunch of roast    Saddle of roast Mutton, shoulder of roas
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THE MISTRESS.
THE MISTRESS.
"Strength, and honour are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household; and eateth not the bread of idleness. Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her."— Proverbs , xxxi. 25-28. I. AS WITH THE COMMANDER OF AN ARMY, or the leader of any enterprise, so is it with the mistress of a house. Her spirit will be seen through the whol
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THE HOUSEKEEPER.
THE HOUSEKEEPER.
55. AS SECOND IN COMMAND IN THE HOUSE, except in large establishments, where there is a house steward, the housekeeper must consider herself as the immediate representative of her mistress, and bring, to the management of the household, all those qualities of honesty, industry, and vigilance, in the same degree as if she were at the head of her own family. Constantly on the watch to detect any wrong-doing on the part of any of the domestics, she will overlook all that goes on in the house, and w
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ARRANGEMENT AND ECONOMY OF THE KITCHEN.
ARRANGEMENT AND ECONOMY OF THE KITCHEN.
62. "THE DISTRIBUTION OF A KITCHEN," says Count Rumford, the celebrated philosopher and physician, who wrote so learnedly on all subjects connected with domestic economy and architecture, "must always depend so much on local circumstances, that general rules can hardly be given respecting it; the principles, however, on which this distribution ought, in all cases, to be made, are simple and easy to be understood," and, in his estimation, these resolve themselves into symmetry of proportion in th
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TIMES WHEN THINGS ARE IN SEASON. JANUARY.
TIMES WHEN THINGS ARE IN SEASON. JANUARY.
FISH.—Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whitings. MEAT.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal, venison. POULTRY.—Capons, fowls, tame pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkeys. GAME.—Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wild-fowl, woodcock. VEGETABLES.—Beetroot, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil
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FEBRUARY.
FEBRUARY.
FISH.—Barbel, brill, carp, cod may be bought, but is not so good as in January, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting. MEAT.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal. POULTRY.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season. GAME.—Grouse, hares, partridges, p
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MARCH.
MARCH.
FISH.—Barbel, brill, carp, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting. MEAT.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal. POULTRY.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season. GAME.—Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock. VEGETABLES.—Beetroot, bro
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APRIL.
APRIL.
FISH.—Brill, carp, cockles, crabs, dory, flounders, ling, lobsters, red and gray mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, prawns, salmon (but rather scarce and expensive), shad, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, tench, turbot, whitings. MEAT.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal. POULTRY.—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, leverets, pigeons, pullets, rabbits. GAME.—Hares. VEGETABLES.—Broccoli, celery, lettuces, young onions, parsnips, radishes, small salad, sea-kale, spinach, sprouts,—various herbs. FRUIT.—Apples, nuts, pear
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MAY.
MAY.
FISH.—Carp, chub, crabs, crayfish, dory, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, red and gray mullet, prawns, salmon, shad, smelts, soles, trout, turbot. MEAT.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal. POULTRY.—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, pullets, rabbits. VEGETABLES.—Asparagus, beans, early cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, creases, cucumbers, lettuces, pease, early potatoes, salads, sea-kale,—various herbs. FRUIT.—Apples, green apricots, cherries, currants for tarts, gooseberries, melons, pears, r
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JUNE.
JUNE.
FISH.—Carp, crayfish, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, pike, prawns, salmon, soles, tench, trout, turbot. MEAT.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison. POULTRY.—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears. VEGETABLES.—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, lettuces, onions, parsnips, pease, potatoes, radishes, small salads, sea-kale, spinach,—various herbs. FRUIT.—Apricots, cherries, currants, gooseberries, melo
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JULY.
JULY.
FISH.—Carp, crayfish, dory, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, soles, sturgeon, tench, thornback. MEAT.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison. POULTRY.—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks (called flappers). VEGETABLES.—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, pease, radishes, smal
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AUGUST.
AUGUST.
FISH.—Brill, carp, chub, crayfish, crabs, dory, eels, flounders, grigs, herrings, lobsters, mullet, pike, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, soles, sturgeon, thornback, trout, turbot. MEAT.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison. POULTRY.—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, pigeons, plovers, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks. GAME.—Leverets, grouse, blackcock. VEGETABLES.—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, carrots, cabbages, cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mush
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SEPTEMBER.
SEPTEMBER.
FISH.—Brill, carp, cod, eels, flounders, lobsters, mullet, oysters, plaice, prawns, skate, soles, turbot, whiting, whitebait. MEAT.—Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal. POULTRY.—Chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, teal, turkeys. GAME.—Blackcock, buck venison, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants. VEGETABLES.—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbage sprouts, carrots, celery, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, pease, potatoes, salading, sea-kale, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, vegetabl
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OCTOBER.
OCTOBER.
FISH.—Barbel, brill, cod, crabs, eels, flounders, gudgeons, haddocks, lobsters, mullet, oysters, plaice, prawns, skate, soles, tench, turbot, whiting. MEAT.—Beef, mutton, pork, veal, venison. POULTRY.—Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks. GAME.—Blackcock, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks, doe venison. VEGETABLES.—Artichokes, beets, cabbages, cauliflowers, carrots, celery, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, potatoes, sprout
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NOVEMBER.
NOVEMBER.
FISH.—Brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, gudgeons, haddocks, oysters, pike, soles, tench, turbot, whiting. MEAT.—Beef, mutton, veal, doe venison. POULTRY.—Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild duck. GAME.—Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks. VEGETABLES.—Beetroot, cabbages, carrots, celery, lettuces, late cucumbers, onions, potatoes, salading, spinach, sprouts,—various herbs. FRUIT.—Apples, bullaces, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, pears, wal
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DECEMBER.
DECEMBER.
FISH.—Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, dace, gudgeons, haddocks, herrings, lobsters, oysters, porch, pike, shrimps, skate, sprats, soles, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting. MEAT.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, venison. POULTRY.—Capons, chickens, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks. GAME.—Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks. VEGETABLES.—Broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, leeks, onions, potatoes, parsnips, Scotch kale, turnips, winter s
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INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY.
INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY.
76. AS IN THE FINE ARTS, the progress of mankind from barbarism to civilization is marked by a gradual succession of triumphs over the rude materialities of nature, so in the art of cookery is the progress gradual from the earliest and simplest modes, to those of the most complicated and refined. Plain or rudely-carved stones, tumuli, or mounds of earth, are the monuments by which barbarous tribes denote the events of their history, to be succeeded, only in the long course of a series of ages, b
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EXPLANATION OF FRENCH TERMS USED IN MODERN HOUSEHOLD COOKERY.
EXPLANATION OF FRENCH TERMS USED IN MODERN HOUSEHOLD COOKERY.
ASPIC.—A savoury jelly, used as an exterior moulding for cold game, poultry, fish, &c. This, being of a transparent nature, allows the bird which it covers to be seen through it. This may also be used for decorating or garnishing. ASSIETTE (plate).— Assiettes are the small entrées and hors-d'oeuvres , the quantity of which does not exceed what a plate will hold. At dessert, fruits, cheese, chestnuts, biscuits, &c., if served upon a plate, are termed assiettes .—ASSIETTE VOLANTE i
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CHAPTER V. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUPS.
CHAPTER V. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUPS.
88. LEAN, JUICY BEEF, MUTTON, AND VEAL, form the basis of all good soups; therefore it is advisable to procure those pieces which afford the richest succulence, and such as are fresh-killed. Stale meat renders them bad, and fat is not so well adapted for making them. The principal art in composing good rich soup, is so to proportion the several ingredients that the flavour of one shall not predominate over another, and that all the articles of which it is composed, shall form an agreeable whole.
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SOUP, BROTH AND BOUILLON.
SOUP, BROTH AND BOUILLON.
91. IT HAS BEEN ASSERTED, that English cookery is, nationally speaking, far from being the best in the world. More than this, we have been frequently told by brilliant foreign writers, half philosophers, half chefs , that we are the worst cooks on the face of the earth, and that the proverb which alludes to the divine origin of food, and the precisely opposite origin of its preparers, is peculiarly applicable to us islanders. Not, however, to the inhabitants of the whole island; for, it is state
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THE CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY OF SOUP-MAKING.
THE CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY OF SOUP-MAKING.
96. STOCK BEING THE BASIS of all meat soups, and, also, of all the principal sauces, it is essential to the success of these culinary operations, to know the most complete and economical method of extracting, from a certain quantity of meat, the best possible stock or broth. The theory and philosophy of this process we will, therefore, explain, and then proceed to show the practical course to be adopted. 97. AS ALL MEAT is principally composed of fibres, fat, gelatine, osmazome, and albumen, it
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CHAPTER VI. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SOUPS.
CHAPTER VI. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SOUPS.
[ It will be seen, by reference to the following Recipes, that an entirely original and most intelligible system has been pursued in explaining the preparation of each dish. We would recommend the young housekeeper, cook, or whoever may be engaged in the important task of "getting ready" the dinner, or other meal, to follow precisely the order in which the recipes are given. Thus, let them first place on their table all the INGREDIENTS necessary; then the modus operandi, or MODE of preparation,
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STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUPS.
STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUPS.
104. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of shin of beef, 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, 3/4 lb. of good lean ham; any poultry trimmings; 3 small onions, 3 small carrots, 3 turnips (the latter should be omitted in summer, lest they ferment), 1 head of celery, a few chopped mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 tomato, a bunch of savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley; 1-1/2 oz. of salt, 12 white peppercorns, 6 cloves, 3 small blades of mace, 4 quarts of water. Mode .—Line a delicately clean stewpan with the ham cut in thin
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MEDIUM STOCK.
MEDIUM STOCK.
105. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of shin of beef, or 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, or 2 lbs. of each; any bones, trimmings of poultry, or fresh meat, 1/2 a lb. of lean bacon or ham, 2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, each stuck with 3 cloves; 1 turnip, 3 carrots, 1/2 a leek, 1 head of celery, 2 oz. of salt, 1/2 a teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 large blade of mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, 4 quarts and 1/2 pint of cold water. Mode .—Cut up the meat and bacon or ham into pieces about 3 inches square; ru
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ECONOMICAL STOCK.
ECONOMICAL STOCK.
106. INGREDIENTS.—The liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled, say 4 quarts; trimmings of fresh meat or poultry, shank-bones, &c., roast-beef bones, any pieces the larder may furnish; vegetables, spices, and the same seasoning as in the foregoing recipe. Mode .—Let all the ingredients simmer gently for 6 hours, taking care to skim carefully at first. Strain it off, and put by for use. Time .—6 hours. Average cost , 3d. per quart....
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WHITE STOCK.
WHITE STOCK.
( To be Used in the Preparation of White Soups .) 107. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, any poultry trimmings, 4 slices of lean ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, 12 white peppercorns, 1 oz. of salt, 1 blade of mace, 1 oz. butter, 4 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut up the veal, and put it with the bones and trimmings of poultry, and the ham, into the stewpan, which has been rubbed with the butter. Moisten with 1/2 a pint of water, and simmer till the gravy begins to flow. Then add the
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BROWNING FOR STOCK.
BROWNING FOR STOCK.
108. INGREDIENTS.—2 oz. of powdered sugar, and 1/2 a pint of water. Mode .—Place the sugar in a stewpan over a slow fire until it begins to melt, keeping it stirred with a wooden spoon until it becomes black, then add the water, and let it dissolve. Cork closely, and use a few drops when required. Note .—In France, burnt onions are made use of for the purpose of browning. As a general rule, the process of browning is to be discouraged, as apt to impart a slightly unpleasant flavour to the stock,
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TO CLARIFY STOCK.
TO CLARIFY STOCK.
109. INGREDIENTS.—The whites of 2 eggs, 1/2 pint of water, 2 quarts of stock. Mode .—Supposing that by some accident the soup is not quite clear, and that its quantity is 2 quarts, take the whites of 2 eggs, carefully separated from their yolks, whisk them well together with the water, and add gradually the 2 quarts of boiling stock, still whisking. Place the soup on the fire, and when boiling and well skimmed, whisk the eggs with it till nearly boiling again; then draw it from the fire, and let
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ALMOND SOUP.
ALMOND SOUP.
110. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of lean beef or veal, 1/2 a scrag of mutton, 1 oz. of vermicelli, 4 blades of mace, 6 cloves, 1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 gill of thick cream, rather more than 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Boil the beef, or veal, and the mutton, gently in water that will cover them, till the gravy is very strong, and the meat very tender; then strain off the gravy, and set it on the fire with the specified quantities of vermicelli, mace, and cloves, to 2 quarts. Let it
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ASPARAGUS SOUP.
ASPARAGUS SOUP.
113. INGREDIENTS.—5 lbs. of lean beef, 3 slices of bacon, 1/2 pint of pale ale, a few leaves of white beet, spinach, 1 cabbage lettuce, a little mint, sorrel, and marjoram, a pint of asparagus-tops cut small, the crust of 1 French roll, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Put the beef, cut in pieces and rolled in flour, into a stewpan, with the bacon at the bottom; cover it close, and set it on a slow fire, stirring it now and then till the gravy is drawn. Put in the water and ale, and
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II.
II.
114. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of split peas, a teacupful of gravy, 4 young onions, 1 lettuce cut small, 1/2 a head of celery, 1/2 a pint of asparagus cut small, 1/2 a pint of cream, 3 quarts of water: colour the soup with spinach juice. Mode .—Boil the peas, and rub them through a sieve; add the gravy, and then stew by themselves the celery, onions, lettuce, and asparagus, with the water. After this, stew altogether, and add the colouring and cream, and serve. Time .—Peas 2-1/2 hours, vegetables
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BARLEY SOUP.
BARLEY SOUP.
116. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1/4 lb. of pearl barley, a large bunch of parsley, 4 onions, 6 potatoes, salt and pepper, 4 quarts of water. Mode .—Put in all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 3 hours. Time .—3 hours. Average cost , 2-1/2d. per quart. Seasonable all the year, but more suitable for winter. [Illustration: BARLEY.] BARLEY.—This, in the order of cereal grasses, is, in Britain, the next plant to wheat in point of value, and exhibits several species and varieties. From
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CARROT SOUP.
CARROT SOUP.
120. INGREDIENTS.—4 quarts of liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef has been boiled, a few beef-bones, 6 large carrots, 2 large onions, 1 turnip; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste; cayenne. Mode .—Put the liquor, bones, onions, turnip, pepper, and salt, into a stewpan, and simmer for 3 hours. Scrape and cut the carrots thin, strain the soup on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair sieve or coarse cloth; then boil the pulp with the soup, which should be of the consiste
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II.
II.
121. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of carrots, 3 oz. of butter, seasoning to taste of salt and cayenne, 2 quarts of stock or gravy soup. Mode .—Scrape and cut out all specks from the carrots, wash, and wipe them dry, and then reduce them into quarter-inch slices. Put the butter into a large stewpan, and when it is melted, add 2 lbs. of the sliced carrots, and let them stew gently for an hour without browning. Add to them the soup, and allow them to simmer till tender,—say for nearly an hour. Press them th
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SOUP A LA JULIENNE.
SOUP A LA JULIENNE.
[Illustration: STRIPS OF VEGETABLE.] 131. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of carrots, 1/2 pint of turnips, 1/4 pint of onions, 2 or 3 leeks, 1/2 head of celery, 1 lettuce, a little sorrel and chervil, if liked, 2 oz. of butter, 2 quarts of stock No. 105. Mode .—Cut the vegetables into strips of about 1-1/4 inch long, and be particular they are all the same size, or some will be hard whilst the others will be done to a pulp. Cut the lettuce, sorrel, and chervil into larger pieces; fry the carrots in the bu
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LEEK SOUP.
LEEK SOUP.
133. INGREDIENTS.—A sheep's head, 3 quarts of water, 12 leeks cut small, pepper and salt to taste, oatmeal to thicken. Mode .—Prepare the head, either by skinning or cleaning the skin very nicely; split it in two; take out the brains, and put it into boiling water; add the leeks and seasoning, and simmer very gently for 4 hours. Mix smoothly, with cold water, as much oatmeal as will make the soup tolerably thick; pour it into the soup; continue stirring till the whole is blended and well done, a
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II.
II.
134. INGREDIENTS.—A capon or large fowl (sometimes an old cock, from which the recipe takes its name, is used), which should be trussed as for boiling; 2 or 3 bunches of fine leeks, 5 quarts of stock No. 105, pepper and salt to taste. Mode .—Well wash the leeks (and, if old, scald them in boiling water for a few minutes), taking off the roots and part of the heads, and cut them into lengths of about an inch. Put the fowl into the stock, with, at first, one half of the leeks, and allow it to simm
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ONION SOUP.
ONION SOUP.
138. INGREDIENTS.—6 large onions, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of cream, 1 quart of stock No. 105. Mode .—Chop the onions, put them in the butter, stir them occasionally, but do not let them brown. When tender, put the stock to them, and season; strain the soup, and add the boiling cream. Time .—1-1/2 hour. Average cost , 1s. per quart. Seasonable in winter. Sufficient for 4 persons....
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CHEAP ONION SOUP.
CHEAP ONION SOUP.
139. INGREDIENTS.—8 middling-sized onions, 3 oz. of butter, a tablespoonful of rice-flour, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar, thickening of butter and flour, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut the onions small, put them in the stewpan with the butter, and fry them well; mix the rice-flour smoothly with the water, add the onions, seasoning, and sugar, and simmer till tender. Thicken with butter and flour, and serve. Time .—2 hours. Average cost ,4d. per quart. Seasonable in win
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WINTER PEA SOUP (YELLOW).
WINTER PEA SOUP (YELLOW).
143. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of split peas, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, trimmings of meat or poultry, a slice of bacon, 2 large carrots, 2 turnips, 5 large onions, 1 head of celery, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of soft water, any bones left from roast meat, 2 quarts of common stock, or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled. Mode .—Put the peas to soak over-night in soft water, and float off such as rise to the top. Boil them in the water till tender enough to pulp; then add the ingredients me
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POTATO SOUP.
POTATO SOUP.
145. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of mealy potatoes, boiled or steamed very dry, pepper and salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105. Mode .—When the potatoes are boiled, mash them smoothly, that no lumps remain, and gradually put them to the boiling stock; pass it through a sieve, season, and simmer for 5 minutes. Skim well, and serve with fried bread. Time .—1/2 hour. Average cost , 10d. per quart. Seasonable from September to March. Sufficient for 8 persons....
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II.
II.
146. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of shin of beef, 1 lb. of potatoes, 1 onion, 1/2 a pint of peas, 2 oz. of rice, 2 heads of celery, pepper and salt to taste, 3 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut the beef into thin slices, chop the potatoes and onion, and put them in a stewpan with the water, peas, and rice. Stew gently till the gravy is drawn from the meat; strain it off, take out the beef, and pulp the other ingredients through a coarse sieve. Put the pulp back in the soup, cut up the celery in it, and simmer
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III.
III.
( Very Economical .) 147. INGREDIENTS.—4 middle-sized potatoes well pared, a thick slice of bread, 6 leeks peeled and cut into thin slices as far as the white extends upwards from the roots, a teacupful of rice, a teaspoonful of salt, and half that of pepper, and 2 quarts of water. Mode .—The water must be completely boiling before anything is put into it; then add the whole of the ingredients at once, with the exception of the rice, the salt, and the pepper. Cover, and let these come to a brisk
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RICE SOUP.
RICE SOUP.
150. INGREDIENTS.—4 oz. of Patna rice, salt, cayenne, and mace, 2 quarts of white stock. Mode .—Throw the rice into boiling water, and let it remain 5 minutes; then pour it into a sieve, and allow it to drain well. Now add it to the stock boiling, and allow it to stew till it is quite tender; season to taste. Serve quickly. Time .—1 hour. Average cost , 1s. 3d. per quart. Seasonable all the year. Sufficient for 8 persons. [Illustration: EARS OF RICE.] RICE.—This is a plant of Indian origin, and
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SAGO SOUP.
SAGO SOUP.
152. INGREDIENTS.—5 oz. of sago, 2 quarts of stock No. 105. Mode .—Wash the sago in boiling water, and add it, by degrees, to the boiling stock, and simmer till the sago is entirely dissolved, and forms a sort of jelly. Time .—Nearly an hour. Average cost , 10d. per quart. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable all the year. Note .—The yolks of 2 eggs, beaten up with a little cream, previously boiled, and added at the moment of serving, much improves this soup. [Illustration: SAGO PALM.] SAGO.—The
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II.
II.
160. INGREDIENTS.—Equal quantities of onions, carrots, turnips; 1/4 lb. of butter, a crust of toasted bread, 1 head of celery, a faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar, 2 quarts of common stock or boiling water. Allow 3/4 lb. of vegetables to 2 quarts of stock, No. 105. Mode .—Cut up the onions, carrots, and turnips; wash and drain them well, and put them in the stewpan with the butter and powdered sugar. Toss the whole over a sharp fire for 10 minutes, but do
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III.
III.
( Good and Cheap, made without Meat .) 161. INGREDIENTS.—6 potatoes, 4 turnips, or 2 if very large; 2 carrots, 2 onions; if obtainable, 2 mushrooms; 1 head of celery, 1 large slice of bread, 1 small saltspoonful of salt, 1/4 saltspoonful of ground black pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 6 quarts of water. Mode .—Peel the vegetables, and cut them up into small pieces; toast the bread rather brown, and put all into a stewpan with the water and seasoning. Simmer gently for 3 hours, or until
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VERMICELLI SOUP.
VERMICELLI SOUP.
162. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of bacon, stuck with cloves; 1/2 oz. of butter, worked up in flour; 1 small fowl, trussed for boiling; 2 oz. of vermicelli, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107. Mode .—Put the stock, bacon, butter, and fowl into the stewpan, and stew for 3/4 of an hour. Take the vermicelli, add it to a little of the stock, and set it on the fire, till it is quite tender. When the soup is ready, take out the fowl and bacon, and put the bacon on a dish. Skim the soup as clean as possible;
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WHITE SOUP.
WHITE SOUP.
164. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of sweet almonds, 1/4 lb. of cold veal or poultry, a thick slice of stale bread, a piece of fresh lemon-peel, 1 blade of mace, pounded, 3/4 pint of cream, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107. Mode .—Reduce the almonds in a mortar to a paste, with a spoonful of water, and add to them the meat, which should be previously pounded with the bread. Beat all together, and add the lemon-peel, very finely chopped, and the mace. Pour the boiling stoc
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USEFUL SOUP FOR BENEVOLENT PURPOSES.
USEFUL SOUP FOR BENEVOLENT PURPOSES.
165. INGREDIENTS.—An ox-cheek, any pieces of trimmings of beef, which may be bought very cheaply (say 4 lbs.), a few bones, any pot-liquor the larder may furnish, 1/4 peck of onions, 6 leeks, a large bunch of herbs, 1/2 lb. of celery (the outside pieces, or green tops, do very well); 1/2 lb. of carrots, 1/2 lb. of turnips, 1/2 lb. of coarse brown sugar, 1/2 a pint of beer, 4 lbs. of common rice, or pearl barley; 1/2 lb. of salt, 1 oz. of black pepper, a few raspings, 10 gallons of water. Mode .—
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MEAT, POULTRY, AND GAME SOUPS. BRILLA SOUP.
MEAT, POULTRY, AND GAME SOUPS. BRILLA SOUP.
166. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 carrots, 2 turnips, a large sprig of thyme, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, salt and pepper to taste, 4 quarts water. Mode .—Take the beef, cut off all the meat from the bone, in nice square pieces, and boil the bone for 4 hours. Strain the liquor, let it cool, and take off the fat; then put the pieces of meat in the cold liquor; cut small the carrots, turnips, and celery; chop the onions, add them with the thyme and seasoning, and simmer till the meat is
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GIBLET SOUP.
GIBLET SOUP.
168. INGREDIENTS.—3 sets of goose or duck giblets, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, a few bones, 1 ox-tail, 2 mutton-shanks, 2 large onions, 2 carrots, 1 large faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of cream, 1 oz. of butter mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, 3 quarts of water. Mode .—Scald the giblets, cut the gizzards in 8 pieces, and put them in a stewpan with the beef, bones, ox-tail, mutton-shanks, onions, herbs, pepper, and salt; add the 3 quarts of water, and simmer till the gibl
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GRAVY SOUP.
GRAVY SOUP.
169. INGREDIENTS.—6 lbs. of shin of beef, a knuckle of veal weighing 5 lbs., a few pieces or trimmings, 2 slices of nicely-flavoured lean, ham; 1/4 lb. of butter, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, nearly a head of celery, 1 blade of mace, 6 cloves, a hunch of savoury herb with endive, seasoning of salt and pepper to taste, 3 lumps of sugar, 5 quarts of boiling soft water. It can be flavoured with ketchup, Leamington sauce ( see SAUCES), Harvey's sauce, and a little soy. Mode .—Slightly brown the me
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II.
II.
Proceed as above; but, instead of putting the joints of the hare in the soup, pick the meat from the bones, pound it in a mortar, and add it, with the crumb of two French rolls, to the soup. Rub all through a sieve; heat slowly, but do not let it boil. Send it to table immediately. Time .-8 hours. Average cost , 1s. 9d. per quart. Seasonable from September to February. Sufficient for 10 persons. [Illustration: HARE.] THE COMMON HARE.—This little animal is found throughout Europe, and, indeed, in
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MOCK TURTLE.
MOCK TURTLE.
172. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 a calf's head, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of lean ham, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, a little minced lemon thyme, sweet marjoram, basil, 2 onions, a few chopped mushrooms (when obtainable), 2 shallots, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/4 bottle of Madeira or sherry, force-meat balls, cayenne, salt and mace to taste, the juice of 1 lemon and 1 Seville orange, 1 dessert-spoonful of pounded sugar, 3 quarts of best stock, No. 104. Mode .—Scald the head with the skin on, remove
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II.
II.
( More Economical .) 173. INGREDIENTS.—A knuckle of veal weighing 5 or 6 lbs., 2 cow-heels, 2 large onions stuck with cloves, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 3 blades of mace, salt to taste, 12 peppercorns, 1 glass of sherry, 24 force-meat balls, a little lemon-juice, 4 quarts of water. Mode .—Put all the ingredients, except the force-meat balls and lemon-juice, in an earthen jar, and stew for 6 hours. Do not open it till cold. When wanted for use, skim off all the fat, and strain carefully; place it on
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PARTRIDGE SOUP.
PARTRIDGE SOUP.
178. INGREDIENTS.—2 partridges, 3 slices of lean ham, 2 shred onions, 1 head of celery, 1 large carrot, and 1 turnip cut into any fanciful shapes, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common, No. 106. Mode .—Cut the partridges into pieces, and braise them in the butter and ham until quite tender; then take out the legs, wings, and breast, and set them by. Keep the backs and other trimmings in the braise, and add the onions and celery; an
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PORTABLE SOUP.
PORTABLE SOUP.
180. INGREDIENTS.—2 knuckles of veal, 3 shins of beef, 1 large faggot of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 heads of celery, 3 onions, 3 carrots, 2 blades of mace, 6 cloves, a teaspoonful of salt, sufficient water to cover all the ingredients. Mode .—Take the marrow from the bones; put all the ingredients in a stock-pot, and simmer slowly for 12 hours, or more, if the meat be not done to rags; strain it off, and put it in a very cool place; take off all the fat, reduce the liquor in a shallow pan, by settin
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REGENCY SOUP.
REGENCY SOUP.
182. Ingredients.—Any bones and remains of any cold game, such as of pheasants, partridges, &c.; 2 carrots, 2 small onions, 1 head of celery, 1 turnip, 1/4 lb. of pearl barley, the yolks of 3 eggs boiled hard, 1/4 pint of cream, salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common stock, No. 106. Mode .—Place the bones or remains of game in the stewpan, with the vegetables sliced; pour over the stock, and simmer for 2 hours; skim off all the fat, and strain it. Wash the barley, and boil i
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SOUP A LA REINE.
SOUP A LA REINE.
183. INGREDIENTS.—1 large fowl, 1 oz. of sweet almonds, the crumb of 1 1/2 French roll, 1/2 pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 quarts of good white veal stock, No. 107. Mode .—Boil the fowl gently in the stock till quite tender, which will be in about an hour, or rather more; take out the fowl, pull the meat from the bones, and put it into a mortar with the almonds, and pound very fine. When beaten enough, put the meat back in the stock, with the crumb of the rolls, and let i
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STEW SOUP OF SALT MEAT.
STEW SOUP OF SALT MEAT.
185. INGREDIENTS.—Any pieces of salt beef or pork, say 2 lbs.; 4 carrots, 4 parsnips, 4 turnips, 4 potatoes, 1 cabbage, 2 oz. of oatmeal or ground rice, seasoning of salt and pepper, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut up the meat small, add the water, and let it simmer for 23/4 hours. Now add the vegetables, cut in thin small slices; season, and boil for 1 hour. Thicken with the oatmeal, and serve. Time .—2 hours. Average cost , 3d. per quart without the meat. Seasonable in winter. Sufficient for 6 p
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STEW SOUP.
STEW SOUP.
186. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of beef, 5 onions, 5 turnips, 3/4 lb. of rice , a large bunch of parsley, a few sweet herbs, pepper and salt, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut the beef up in small pieces, add the other ingredients, and boil gently for 21/2 hours. Oatmeal or potatoes would be a great improvement. Time .-21/2 hours. Average cost , 6d. per quart. Seasonable in winter. Sufficient for 6 persons....
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II.
II.
187. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of beef, mutton, or pork; 1/2 pint of split peas, 4 turnips, 8 potatoes, 2 onions, 2 oz. of oatmeal or 3 oz. of rice, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut the meat in small pieces, as also the vegetables, and add them, with the peas, to the water. Boil gently for 3 hours; thicken with the oatmeal, boil for another 1/4 hour, stirring all the time, and season with pepper and salt. Time .—3-1/4 hours. Average cost , 4d. per quart. Seasonable in winter. Sufficient for 8 persons. N
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HODGE-PODGE.
HODGE-PODGE.
191. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 quarts of water, 1 pint of table-beer, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery; pepper and salt to taste; thickening of butter and flour. Mode .—Put the meat, beer, and water in a stewpan; simmer for a few minutes, and skim carefully. Add the vegetables and seasoning; stew gently till the meat is tender. Thicken with the butter and flour, and serve with turnips and carrots, or spinach and celery. Time .—3 hours, or rather more. Average cost ,
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FISH STOCK.
FISH STOCK.
192. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of beef or veal (these can be omitted), any kind of white fish trimmings, of fish which are to be dressed for table, 2 onions, the rind of 1/2 a lemon, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 carrots, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut up the fish, and put it, with the other ingredients, into the water. Simmer for 2 hours; skim the liquor carefully, and strain it. When a richer stock is wanted, fry the vegetables and fish before adding the water. Time .—2 hours. Average cost , with meat, 1
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CRAYFISH SOUP.
CRAYFISH SOUP.
193. INGREDIENTS.—50 crayfish, 1/4 lb. of butter, 6 anchovies, the crumb of 1 French roll, a little lobster-spawn, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock, No. 105, or fish stock, No. 192. Mode .—Shell the crayfish, and put the fish between two plates until they are wanted; pound the shells in a mortar, with the butter and anchovies; when well beaten, add a pint of stock, and simmer for 3/4 of an hour. Strain it through a hair sieve, put the remainder of the stock to it, with the crumb of t
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LOBSTER SOUP.
LOBSTER SOUP.
195. INGREDIENTS.—3 large lobsters, or 6 small ones; the crumb of a French roll, 2 anchovies, 1 onion, 1 small bunch of sweet herbs, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 2 oz. of butter, a little nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1 pint of cream, 1 pint of milk; forcemeat balls, mace, salt and pepper to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Pick the meat from the lobsters, and beat the fins, chine, and small claws in a mortar, previously taking away the brown fin and the bag in the head. Put it
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OYSTER SOUP.
OYSTER SOUP.
196. INGREDIENTS.—6 dozen of oysters, 2 quarts of white stock, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1-1/2 oz. of flour; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste. Mode .—Scald the oysters in their own liquor; take them out, beard them, and put them in a tureen. Take a pint of the stock, put in the beards and the liquor, which must be carefully strained, and simmer for 1/2 an hour. Take it off the fire, strain it again, and add the remainder of the stock with the seasoning and mace. Bring it to a boil, add
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II.
II.
197. INGREDIENTS.—2 quarts of good mutton broth, 6 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 oz. of flour. Mode .—Beard the oysters, and scald them in their own liquor; then add it, well strained, to the broth; thicken with the butter and flour, and simmer for 1/4 of an hour. Put in the oysters, stir well, but do not let it boil, and serve very hot. Time .—3/4 hour. Average cost , 2s. per quart. Seasonable from September to April. Sufficient for 8 persons. SEASON OF OYSTERS.—From April and May to the end o
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CHAPTER VII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.
CHAPTER VII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.
199. IN NATURAL HISTORY, FISHES form the fourth class in the system of Linnaeus, and are described as having long under-jaws, eggs without white, organs of sense, fins for supporters, bodies covered with concave scales, gills to supply the place of lungs for respiration, and water for the natural element of their existence. Had mankind no other knowledge of animals than of such as inhabit the land and breathe their own atmosphere, they would listen with incredulous wonder, if told that there wer
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FISH AS AN ARTICLE OF HUMAN FOOD.
FISH AS AN ARTICLE OF HUMAN FOOD.
211. AS THE NUTRITIVE PROPERTIES OF FISH are deemed inferior to those of what is called butchers' meat, it would appear, from all we can learn, that, in all ages, it has held only a secondary place in the estimation of those who have considered the science of gastronomy as a large element in the happiness of mankind. Among the Jews of old it was very little used, although it seems not to have been entirely interdicted, as Moses prohibited only the use of such as had neither scales nor fins. The
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GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR DRESSING FISH.
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR DRESSING FISH.
219. IN DRESSING FISH, of any kind, the first point to be attended to, is to see that it be perfectly clean. It is a common error to wash it too much; as by doing so the flavour is diminished. If the fish is to be boiled, a little salt and vinegar should be put into the water, to give it firmness, after it is cleaned. Cod-fish, whiting, and haddock, are far better if a little salted, and kept a day; and if the weather be not very hot, they will be good for two days. 220. WHEN FISH IS CHEAP AND P
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CHAPTER VIII. FISH.
CHAPTER VIII. FISH.
[ Nothing is more difficult than to give the average prices of Fish, inasmuch as a few hours of bad weather at sea will, in the space of one day, cause such a difference in its supply, that the same fish—a turbot for instance—which may be bought to-day for six or seven shillings, will, to-morrow, be, in the London markets, worth, perhaps, almost as many pounds. The average costs, therefore, which will be found appended to each recipe, must be understood as about the average price for the differe
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POTTED ANCHOVIES.
POTTED ANCHOVIES.
POTTED ANCHOVIES are made in the same way, by adding pounded mace, cayenne, and nutmeg to taste....
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ANCHOVY TOAST.
ANCHOVY TOAST.
228. INGREDIENTS.—Toast 2 or 3 slices of bread, or, if wanted very savoury, fry them in clarified butter, and spread on them the paste, No. 227. Made mustard, or a few grains of cayenne, may be added to the paste before laying it on the toast. ANCHOVY PASTE.—"When some delicate zest," says a work just issued on the adulterations of trade, "is required to make the plain English breakfast more palatable, many people are in the habit of indulging in what they imagine to be anchovies. These fish are
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CODFISH.
CODFISH.
231. Cod may be boiled whole; but a large head and shoulders are quite sufficient for a dish, and contain all that is usually helped, because, when the thick part is done, the tail is insipid and overdone. The latter, cut in slices, makes a very good dish for frying; or it may be salted down and served with egg sauce and parsnips. Cod, when boiled quite fresh, is watery; salting a little, renders it firmer. [Illustration: THE COD.] THE COD TRIBE.—The Jugular, characterized by bony gills, and ven
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SALT COD, COMMONLY CALLED "SALT-FISH."
SALT COD, COMMONLY CALLED "SALT-FISH."
233. INGREDIENTS.—Sufficient water to cover the fish. Mode .—Wash the fish, and lay it all night in water, with a 1/4 pint of vinegar. When thoroughly soaked, take it out, see that it is perfectly clean, and put it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to cover it. Heat it gradually, but do not let it boil much, or the fish will be hard. Skim well, and when done, drain the fish and put it on a napkin garnished with hard-boiled eggs cut in rings. Time .—About 1 hour. Average cost , 6d. pe
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COD SOUNDS, EN POULE.
COD SOUNDS, EN POULE.
234. INGREDIENTS.—For forcemeat, 12 chopped oysters, 3 chopped anchovies, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs; seasoning of salt, pepper, nutmeg, and mace to taste; 4 cod sounds. Mode .—Make the forcemeat by mixing the ingredients well together. Wash the sounds, and boil them in milk and water for 1/2 an hour; take them out and let them cool. Cover each with a layer of forcemeat, roll them up in a nice form, and skewer them. Rub over with lard, dredge with flour, and cook them gentl
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II.
II.
236. INGREDIENTS.—2 slices of cod; pepper and salt to taste; 1/2 a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 large blade of pounded mace, 2 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of stock No. 107, a paste crust ( see Pastry). For sauce, 1 tablespoonful of stock, 1/4 pint of cream or milk, thickening of flour or butter; lemon-peel chopped very fine to taste; 12 oysters. Mode .—Lay the cod in salt for 4 hours, then wash it and place it in a dish; season, and add the butter and stock; cover with the crust, and bake for 1 h
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CURRIED COD.
CURRIED COD.
237. INGREDIENTS.—2 slices of large cod, or the remains of any cold fish; 3 oz. of butter, 1 onion sliced, a teacupful of white stock, thickening of butter and flour, 1 small teaspoonful of curry-powder, 1/4 pint of cream, salt and cayenne to taste. Mode .—Flake the fish, and fry it of a nice brown colour with the butter and onions; put this in a stewpan, add the stock and thickening, and simmer for 10 minutes. Stir the curry-powder into the cream; put it, with the seasoning, to the other ingred
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COD A LA BECHAMEL.
COD A LA BECHAMEL.
239. INGREDIENTS.—Any remains of cold cod, 4 tablespoonfuls of béchamel ( see Sauces), 2 oz. butter; seasoning to taste of pepper and salt; fried bread, a few bread crumbs. Mode .—Flake the cod carefully, leaving out all skin and bone; put the béchamel in a stewpan with the butter, and stir it over the fire till the latter is melted; add seasoning, put in the fish, and mix it well with the sauce. Make a border of fried bread round the dish, lay in the fish, sprinkle over with bread crumbs, and b
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HOT CRAB.
HOT CRAB.
245. INGREDIENTS.—1 crab, nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, 3 oz. of butter, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Mode .—After having boiled the crab, pick the meat out from the shells, and mix with it the nutmeg and seasoning. Cut up the butter in small pieces, and add the bread crumbs and vinegar. Mix altogether, put the whole in the large shell, and brown before the fire or with a salamander. Time .—1 hour. Average cost , from 10d. to 2s. Seasonable all the year; but not so g
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POTTED CRAYFISH.
POTTED CRAYFISH.
247. INGREDIENTS.—100 crayfish; pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. butter. Mode .—Boil the fish in salt and water; pick out all the meat and pound it in a mortar to a paste. Whilst pounding, add the butter gradually, and mix in the spice and seasoning. Put it in small pots, and pour over it clarified butter, carefully excluding the air. Time .—15 minutes to boil the crayfish. Average cost , 2s. 9d. Seasonable all the year....
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JOHN DORY.
JOHN DORY.
248. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water. Mode .—This fish, which is esteemed by most people a great delicacy, is dressed in the same way as a turbot, which it resembles in firmness, but not in richness. Cleanse it thoroughly and cut off the fins; lay it in a fish-kettle, cover with cold water, and add salt in the above proportion. Bring it gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for 1/4 hour, or rather longer, should the fish be very large. Serve on a hot napkin, and garnish wit
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FRIED EELS.
FRIED EELS.
252. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of eels, 1 egg, a few bread crumbs, hot lard. Mode .—Wash the eels, cut them into pieces 3 inches long, trim and wipe them very dry; dredge with flour, rub them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs; fry of a nice brown in hot lard. If the eels are small, curl them round, instead of cutting them up. Garnish with fried parsley. Time .—20 minutes, or rather less. Average cost , 6d. per lb. Seasonable from June to March. Note .—Garfish may be dressed like eels, and eith
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COLLARED EEL.
COLLARED EEL.
254. INGREDIENTS.—1 large eel; pepper and salt to taste; 2 blades of mace, 2 cloves, a little allspice very finely pounded, 6 leaves of sage, and a small bunch of herbs minced very small. Mode .—Bone the eel and skin it; split it, and sprinkle it over with the ingredients, taking care that the spices are very finely pounded, and the herbs chopped very small. Roll it up and bind with a broad piece of tape, and boil it in water, mixed with a little salt and vinegar, till tender. It may either be s
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FISH CAKE.
FISH CAKE.
258. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of any cold fish, 1 onion, 1 faggot of sweet herbs; salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of water, equal quantities of bread crumbs and cold potatoes, 1/2 teaspoonful of parsley, 1 egg, bread crumbs. Mode .—Pick the meat from the bones of the fish, which latter put, with the head and fins, into a stewpan with the water; add pepper and salt, the onion and herbs, and stew slowly for gravy about 2 hours; chop the fish fine, and mix it well with bread crumbs and cold potato
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BOILED FLOUNDERS.
BOILED FLOUNDERS.
259. INGREDIENTS.—Sufficient water to cover the flounders, salt in the proportion of 6 oz. to each gallon, a little vinegar. Mode .—Pat on a kettle with enough water to cover the flounders, lay in the fish, add salt and vinegar in the above proportions, and when it boils, simmer very gently for 5 minutes. They must not boil fast, or they will break. Serve with plain melted butter, or parsley and butter. Time .—After the water boils, 5 minutes. Average cost , 3d. each. Seasonable from August to N
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GUDGEONS.
GUDGEONS.
261. INGREDIENTS.—Egg and bread crumbs sufficient for the quantity of fish; hot lard. Mode .—Do not scrape off the scales, but take out the gills and inside, and cleanse thoroughly; wipe them dry, flour and dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with bread crumbs. Fry of a nice brown. Time .—3 or 4 minutes. Average cost . Seldom bought. Seasonable from March to July. Sufficient , 3 for each person. [Illustration: THE GUDGEON.] THE GUDGEON.—This is a fresh-water fish, belonging to the carp genus, a
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II.
II.
266. INGREDIENTS.—1 large thick haddock, 2 bay-leaves, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley, a little butter and pepper; boiling water. Mode .—Cut up the haddock into square pieces, make a basin hot by means of hot water, which pour out. Lay in the fish, with the bay-leaves and herbs; cover with boiling water; put a plate over to keep in the steam, and let it remain for 10 minutes. Take out the slices, put them in a hot dish, rub over with butter and pepper, and serve. Time .—1
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TO BOIL LOBSTERS.
TO BOIL LOBSTERS.
270. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water. Mode .—Buy the lobsters alive, and choose those that are heavy and full of motion, which is an indication of their freshness. When the shell is incrusted, it is a sign they are old: medium-sized lobsters are the best. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion; put in the lobster, and keep it boiling quickly from 20 minutes to 3/4 hour, according to its size, and do not forget to skim well. If it boils too long
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LOBSTER SALAD.
LOBSTER SALAD.
272. INGREDIENTS.—1 hen lobster, lettuces, endive, small salad (whatever is in season), a little chopped beetroot, 2 hard-boiled eggs, a few slices of cucumber. For dressing, equal quantities of oil and vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, the yolks of 2 eggs; cayenne and salt to taste; 3 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. These ingredients should be mixed perfectly smooth, and form a creamy-looking sauce. Mode .—Wash the salad, and thoroughly dry it by shaking it in a cloth. Cut up the lettuces a
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BROILED MACKEREL.
BROILED MACKEREL.
281. INGREDIENTS.—Pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of oil. Mode .—Mackerel should never be washed when intended to be broiled, but merely wiped very clean and dry, after taking out the gills and insides. Open the back, and put in a little pepper, salt, and oil; broil it over a clear fire, turn it over on both sides, and also on the back. When sufficiently cooked, the flesh can be detached from the bone, which will be in about 15 minutes for a small mackerel. Chop a little parsley, work
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FILLETS OF MACKEREL.
FILLETS OF MACKEREL.
282. INGREDIENTS.—2 large mackerel, 1 oz. butter, 1 small bunch of chopped herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of medium stock, No. 105, 3 tablespoonfuls of béchamel ( see Sauces); salt, cayenne, and lemon-juice to taste. Mode .—Clean the fish, and fillet it; scald the herbs, chop them fine, and put them with the butter and stock into a stewpan. Lay in the mackerel, and simmer very gently for 10 minutes; take them out, and put them on a hot dish. Dredge in a little flour, add the other ingredients, give one
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II.
II.
Prepare the oysters as in the preceding recipe, and put them in a scallop-shell or saucer, and between each layer sprinkle over a few bread crumbs, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; place small pieces of butter over, and bake before the fire in a Dutch oven. Put sufficient bread crumbs on the top to make a smooth surface, as the oysters should not be seen. Time .—About 1/4 hour. Average cost , 3s. 2d. Seasonable from September to April....
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STEWED OYSTERS.
STEWED OYSTERS.
288. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of oysters, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1/3 pint of cream; cayenne and salt to taste; 1 blade of pounded mace. Mode .—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them out, beard them, and strain the liquor; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in sufficient flour to dry it up, add the oyster-liquor and mace, and stir it over a sharp fire with a wooden spoon; when it comes to a boil, add the cream, oysters, and seasoning. Let all simmer for 1 or 2 minutes, but not longer, or
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OYSTERS FRIED IN BATTER.
OYSTERS FRIED IN BATTER.
291. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of oysters, 2 eggs, 1/2 pint of milk, sufficient flour to make the batter; pepper and salt to taste; when liked, a little nutmeg; hot lard. Mode .—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and lay them on a cloth, to drain thoroughly. Break the eggs into a basin, mix the flour with them, add the milk gradually, with nutmeg and seasoning, and put the oysters in the batter. Make some lard hot in a deep frying-pan, put in the oysters, one at a time; when done, ta
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PERCH STEWED WITH WINE.
PERCH STEWED WITH WINE.
294. INGREDIENTS.—Equal quantities of stock No. 105 and sherry, 1 bay-leaf, 1 clove of garlic, a small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, salt to taste; thickening of butter and flour, pepper, grated nutmeg, 1/2 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. Mode .—Scale the fish and take out the gills, and clean them thoroughly; lay them in a stewpan with sufficient stock and sherry just to cover them. Put in the bay-leaf, garlic, parsley, cloves, and salt, and simmer till tender. When done, take out the fish, strain
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BOILED PIKE.
BOILED PIKE.
295. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water; a little vinegar. Mode .—Scale and clean the pike, and fasten the tail in its mouth by means of a skewer. Lay it in cold water, and when it boils, throw in the salt and vinegar. The time for boiling depends, of course, on the size of the fish; but a middling-sized pike will take about 1/2 an hour. Serve with Dutch or anchovy sauce, and plain melted butter. Time .—According to size, 1/2 to 1 hour.— Average cost . Seldom bought. Seasonable
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FRIED PLAICE.
FRIED PLAICE.
297.—INGREDIENTS.—Hot lard, or clarified dripping; egg and bread crumbs. Mode .—This fish is fried in the same manner as soles. Wash and wipe them thoroughly dry, and let them remain in a cloth until it is time to dress them. Brush them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs mixed with a little flour. Fry of a nice brown in hot dripping or lard, and garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon. Send them to table with shrimp-sauce and plain melted butter. Time .—About 5 minutes. Average cost , 3
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STEWED PLAICE.
STEWED PLAICE.
298. INGREDIENTS.—4 or 5 plaice, 2 onions, 1/2 oz. ground ginger, 1 pint of lemon-juice, 1/4 pint water, 6 eggs; cayenne to taste. Mode .—Cut the fish into pieces about 2 inches wide, salt them, and let them remain 1/4 hour. Slice and fry the onions a light brown; put them in a stewpan, on the top of which put the fish without washing, and add the ginger, lemon-juice, and water. Cook slowly for 1/2 hour, and do not let the fish boil, or it will break. Take it out, and when the liquor is cool, ad
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TO DRESS PRAWNS.
TO DRESS PRAWNS.
300. Cover a dish with a large cup reversed, and over that lay a small white napkin. Arrange the prawns on it in the form of a pyramid, and garnish with plenty of parsley....
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BOILED SALMON.
BOILED SALMON.
301. INGREDIENTS.—6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water,—sufficient water to cover the fish. Mode .—Scale and clean the fish, and be particular that no blood is left inside; lay it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to cover it, adding salt in the above proportion. Bring it quickly to a boil, take off all the scum, and let it simmer gently till the fish is done, which will be when the meat separates easily from the bone. Experience alone can teach the cook to fix the time for boiling
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SALMON AND CAPER SAUCE.
SALMON AND CAPER SAUCE.
302. INGREDIENTS.—2 slices of salmon, 1/4 lb. batter, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1 shalot; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste. Mode .—Lay the salmon in a baking-dish, place pieces of butter over it, and add the other ingredients, rubbing a little of the seasoning into the fish; baste it frequently; when done, take it out and drain for a minute or two; lay it in a dish, pour caper sauce over it, and serve. Salmon dressed in this way, with tomato sauce, is very delicious. Time .—Abo
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PICKLED SALMON.
PICKLED SALMON.
308. INGREDIENTS.—Salmon, 1/2 oz. of whole pepper, 1/2 oz. of whole allspice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 bay-leaves, equal quantities of vinegar and the liquor in which the fish was boiled. Mode .—After the fish comes from table, lay it in a nice dish with a cover to it, as it should be excluded from the air, and take away the bone; boil the liquor and vinegar with the other ingredients for 10 minutes, and let it stand to get cold; pour it over the salmon, and in 12 hours this will be fit for the
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BUTTERED PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS.
BUTTERED PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS.
313. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of picked prawns or shrimps, 3/4 pint of stock No. 104, thickening of butter and flour; salt, cayenne, and nutmeg to taste. Mode .—Pick the prawns or shrimps, and put them in a stewpan with the stock; add a thickening of butter and flour; season, and simmer gently for 3 minutes. Serve on a dish garnished with fried bread or toasted sippets. Cream sauce may be substituted for the gravy. Time .—3 minutes. Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 4d. [Illustration: THE SHRIMP.]
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CRIMPED SKATE.
CRIMPED SKATE.
315. INGREDIENTS.—1/8 lb. of salt to each gallon of water. Mode .—Clean, skin, and cut the fish into slices, which roll and tie round with string. Have ready some water highly salted, put in the fish, and boil till it is done. Drain well, remove the string, dish on a hot napkin, and serve with the same sauces as above. Skate should never be eaten out of season, as it is liable to produce diarrhoea and other diseases. It may be dished without a napkin, and the sauce poured over. Time .—About 20 m
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SMALL SKATE FRIED.
SMALL SKATE FRIED.
317. INGREDIENTS.—Skate, sufficient vinegar to cover them, salt and pepper to taste, 1 sliced onion, a small bunch of parsley, the juice of 1/2 lemon, hot dripping. Mode .—Cleanse the skate, lay them in a dish, with sufficient vinegar to cover them; add the salt, pepper, onion, parsley, and lemon-juice, and let the fish remain in this pickle for 1-1/2 hour. Then drain them well, flour them, and fry of a nice brown, in hot dripping. They may be served either with or without sauce. Skate is not go
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SOLE OR COD PIE.
SOLE OR COD PIE.
322. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold boiled sole or cod, seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and pounded mace, 1 dozen oysters to each lb. of fish, 3 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 1 teacupful of cream thickened with flour, puff paste. Mode .—Clear the fish from the bones, lay it in a pie-dish, and between each layer put a few oysters and a little seasoning; add the stock, and, when liked, a small quantity of butter; cover with puff paste, and bake for 1/2 hour. Boil the cream with sufficient f
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SOLES WITH CREAM SAUCE.
SOLES WITH CREAM SAUCE.
323. INGREDIENTS.—2 soles; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; the juice of 1/2 lemon, salt and water, 1/2 pint of cream. Mode .—Skin, wash, and fillet the soles, and divide each fillet in 2 pieces; lay them in cold salt and water, which bring gradually to a boil. When the water boils, take out the fish, lay it in a delicately clean stewpan, and cover with the cream. Add the seasoning, simmer very gently for ten minutes, and, just before serving, put in the lemon-juice. The fillets may be
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FRIED SOLES.
FRIED SOLES.
327. INGREDIENTS.—2 middling-sized soles, hot lard or clarified dripping, egg, and bread crumbs. Mode .—Skin and carefully wash the soles, and cut off the fins, wipe them very dry, and let them remain in the cloth until it is time to dress them. Have ready some fine bread crumbs and beaten egg; dredge the soles with a little flour, brush them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs. Put them in a deep pan, with plenty of clarified dripping or lard (when the expense is not objected to, oil is
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SOLES WITH MUSHROOMS.
SOLES WITH MUSHROOMS.
328. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of milk, 1 pint of water, 1 oz. butter, 1 oz. salt, a little lemon-juice, 2 middling-sized soles. Mode .—Cleanse the soles, but do not skin them, and lay them in a fish-kettle, with the milk, water, butter, salt, and lemon-juice. Bring them gradually to boil, and let them simmer very gently till done, which will be in about 7 minutes. Take them up, drain them well on a cloth, put them on a hot dish, and pour over them a good mushroom sauce. ( See Sauces.) Time .—After th
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SPRATS.
SPRATS.
329. Sprats should be cooked very fresh, which can be ascertained by their bright and sparkling eyes. Wipe them dry; fasten them in rows by a skewer run through the eyes; dredge with flour, and broil them on a gridiron over a nice clear fire. The gridiron should be rubbed with suet. Serve very hot. Time ,—3 or 4 minutes. Average cost , 1d. per lb. Seasonable from November to March. TO CHOOSE SPRATS.—Choose these from their silvery appearance, as the brighter they are, so are they the fresher....
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SPRATS FRIED IN BATTER.
SPRATS FRIED IN BATTER.
330. INGREDIENTS.—2 eggs, flour, bread crumbs; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste. Mode .—Wipe the sprats, and dip them in a batter made of the above ingredients. Fry of a nice brown, serve very hot, and garnish with fried parsley. Sprats may be baked like herrings. ( See No. 268.)...
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DRIED SPRATS.
DRIED SPRATS.
331. Dried sprats should be put into a basin, and boiling water poured over them; they may then be skinned and served, and this will be found a much better way than boiling them. [Illustration: THE SPRAT.] THE SPRAT.—This migratory fish, is rarely found longer than four or five inches, and visits the shores of Britain after the herring and other kinds of fish have taken their departure from them. On the coasts of Suffolk, Essex, and Kent, they are very abundant, and from 400 to 500 boats are emp
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GARNISH FOR TURBOT OR OTHER LARGE FISH.
GARNISH FOR TURBOT OR OTHER LARGE FISH.
338. Take the crumb of a stale loaf, cut it into small pyramids with flat tops, and on the top of each pyramid, put rather more than a tablespoonful of white of egg beaten to a stiff froth. Over this, sprinkle finely-chopped parsley and fine raspings of a dark colour. Arrange these on the napkin round the fish, one green and one brown alternately. TO CHOOSE TURBOT.—See that it is thick, and of a yellowish white; for if of a bluish tint, it is not good. [Illustration: THE TURBOT.] THE TURBOT.—Thi
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FILLETS OF TURBOT A L'ITALIENNE.
FILLETS OF TURBOT A L'ITALIENNE.
340. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold turbot, Italian sauce. (See Sauces.) Mode .—Clear the fish carefully from the bone, and take away all skin, which gives an unpleasant flavour to the sauce. Make the sauce hot, lay in the fish to warm through, but do not let it boil. Garnish with croutons. Time .—5 minutes. Seasonable all the year. THE ANCIENT ROMANS' ESTIMATE OF TURBOT.—As this luxurious people compared soles to partridges, and sturgeons to peacocks, so they found a resemblance to the turbot
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TURBOT AU GRATIN.
TURBOT AU GRATIN.
342. INGREDIENTS.—Remains of cold turbot, béchamel ( see Sauces), bread crumbs, butter. Mode .—Cut the flesh of the turbot into small dice, carefully freeing it from all skin and bone. Put them into a stewpan, and moisten with 4 or 5 tablespoonfuls of béchamel. Let it get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil. Spread the mixture on a dish, cover with finely-grated bread crumbs, and place small pieces of butter over the top. Brown it in the oven, or with a salamander. Time .—Altogether, 1/2
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BOILED WHITING.
BOILED WHITING.
343. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water. Mode .—Cleanse the fish, but do not skin them; lay them in a fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover them, and salt in the above proportion. Bring them gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for about 5 minutes, or rather more should the fish be very large. Dish them on a hot napkin, and garnish with tufts of parsley. Serve with anchovy or caper sauce, and plain melted butter. Time .—After the water boils, 5 minutes. Average cos
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FRIED WHITING.
FRIED WHITING.
345. INGREDIENTS.—Egg and bread crumbs, a little flour, hot lard or clarified dripping. Mode .—Take off the skin, clean, and thoroughly wipe the fish free from all moisture, as this is most essential, in order that the egg and bread crumbs may properly adhere. Fasten the tail in the mouth by means of a small skewer, brush the fish over with egg, dredge with a little flour, and cover with bread crumbs. Fry them in hot lard or clarified dripping of a nice colour, and serve them on a napkin, garnis
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WHITING AUX FINE HERBES.
WHITING AUX FINE HERBES.
347. INGREDIENTS.-1 bunch of sweet herbs chopped very fine; butter. Mode .—Clean and skin the fish, fasten the tails in the mouths; and lay them in a baking-dish. Mince the herbs very fine, strew them over the fish, and place small pieces of butter over; cover with another dish, and let them simmer in a Dutch oven for 1/4 hour or 20 minutes. Turn the fish once or twice, and serve with the sauce poured over. Time .—1/4 hour or 20 minutes. Average cost , 4d. each. Seasonable all the year, but best
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FISH SCALLOP.
FISH SCALLOP.
350. INGREDIENTS.—Remains of cold fish of any sort, 1/2 pint of cream, 1/2 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, 1/2 teaspoonful of made mustard, ditto of walnut ketchup, pepper and salt to taste (the above quantities are for 1/2 lb. of fish when picked); bread crumbs. Mode .—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully picking the fish from the bones; set it on the fire, let it remain till nearly hot, occasionally stir the contents, but do not allow it to boil. When done, put the fish into a dee
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II.
II.
351. INGREDIENTS.—Any cold fish, 1 egg, milk, 1 large blade of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, pepper and salt to taste, bread crumbs, butter. Mode .—Pick the fish carefully from the bones, and moisten with milk and the egg; add the other ingredients, and place in a deep dish or scallop shells; cover with bread crumbs, butter the top, and brown before the fire; when quite hot, serve. Time .—20 minutes. Average cost , exclusive of the cold fish, 4d. 352. Pe
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ADDENDUM AND ANECDOTE.
ADDENDUM AND ANECDOTE.
It will be seen, from the number and variety of the recipes which we have been enabled to give under the head of FISH, that there exists in the salt ocean, and fresh-water rivers, an abundance of aliment, which the present state of gastronomic art enables the cook to introduce to the table in the most agreeable forms, and oftentimes at a very moderate cost. Less nutritious as a food than the flesh of animals, more succulent than vegetables, fish may be termed a middle dish, suited to all tempera
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FISH CARVING. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING FISH.
FISH CARVING. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING FISH.
In carving fish, care should be taken to help it in perfect flakes, as, if these are broken, the beauty of the fish is lost. The carver should be acquainted, too, with the choicest parts and morsels; and to give each guest an equal share of these titbits should be his maxim. Steel knives and forks should on no account be used in helping fish, as these are liable to impart to it a very disagreeable flavour. Where silver fish-carvers are considered too dear to be bought, good electro-plated ones a
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COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.
COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.
(For recipe, see No. 232; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate C.) [Illustration] First run the knife along the centre of the side of the fish, namely, from d to b , down to the bone; then carve it in unbroken slices downwards from d to e , or upwards from d to c , as shown in the engraving. The carver should ask the guests if they would like a portion of the roe and liver. Note .—Of this fish, the parts about the backbone and shoulders are the firmest, and most esteemed by connoisseurs. The
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SALMON.
SALMON.
(For recipe, see No. 301; and for mode of dressing, Coloured Plate B.) [Illustration] First run the knife quite down to the bone, along the side of the fish, from a to b , and also from c to d . Then help the thick part lengthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from a to b ; and the thin part breadthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from e to f , as shown in the engraving. A slice of the thick part should always be accompanied by a smaller piece of the thin from the belly, wh
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BOILED OR FRIED SOLE.
BOILED OR FRIED SOLE.
(For recipes, see Nos. 321 and 327.) The usual way of helping this fish is to cut it quite through, bone and all, distributing it in nice and not too large pieces. A moderately-sized sole will be sufficient for three slices; namely, the head, middle, and tail. The guests should be asked which of these they prefer. A small one will only give two slices. If the sole is very large, the upper side may be raised from the bone, and then divided into pieces; and the under side afterwards served in the
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TURBOT.
TURBOT.
(For recipe, see No. 337; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate E.) First run the fish-slice down the thickest part of the fish, quite through to the bone, from a to b , and then cut handsome and regular slices in the direction of the lines downwards, from c to e , and upwards from c to d , as shown in the engraving. When the carver has removed all the meat from the upper side of the fish, the backbone should be raised, put on one side of the dish, and the under side helped as the upper. A BRI
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CHAPTER IX. GENERAL REMARKS.
CHAPTER IX. GENERAL REMARKS.
354. AN ANECDOTE IS TOLD of the prince de Soubise, who, intending to give an entertainment, asked for the bill of fare. His chef came, presenting a list adorned with vignettes, and the first article of which, that met the prince's eye, was "fifty hams." "Bertrand," said the prince, "I think you must be extravagant; Fifty hams! do you intend to feast my whole regiment?" "No, Prince, there will be but one on the table, and the surplus I need for my Espagnole, blondes, garnitures, &c." "Ber
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CHAPTER X. SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS. ANCHOVY SAUCE FOR FISH.
CHAPTER X. SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS. ANCHOVY SAUCE FOR FISH.
362. INGREDIENTS.—4 anchovies, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of melted butter, cayenne to taste. Mode .—Bone the anchovies, and pound them in a mortar to a paste, with 1 oz. of butter. Make the melted butter hot, stir in the pounded anchovies and cayenne; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes; and if liked, add a squeeze of lemon-juice. A more general and expeditious way of making this sauce is to stir in 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of anchovy essence to 1/2 pint of melted butter, and to add seasoning to taste. Boil t
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BROWN APPLE SAUCE.
BROWN APPLE SAUCE.
364. INGREDIENTS.—6 good-sized apples, 1/2 pint of brown gravy, cayenne to taste. Mode . Put the gravy in a stewpan, and add the apples, after having pared, cored, and quartered them. Let them simmer gently till tender; beat them to a pulp, and season with cayenne. This sauce is preferred by many to the preceding. Time .—According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. Average cost , 6d....
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ASPARAGUS SAUCE.
ASPARAGUS SAUCE.
365. INGREDIENTS.—1 bunch of green asparagus, salt, 1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 small bunch of parsley, 3 or 4 green onions, 1 large lump of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of sauce tournée. Mode .—Break the asparagus in the tender part, wash well, and put them into boiling salt and water to render them green. When they are tender, take them out, and put them into cold water; drain them on a cloth till all moisture is absorbed from them. Put the butter in a stewpan, with the parsley and onions; lay in the
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PICKLED BEETROOT.
PICKLED BEETROOT.
369. INGREDIENTS.—Sufficient vinegar to cover the beets, 2 oz. of whole pepper, 2 oz. of allspice to each gallon of vinegar. Mode .—Wash the beets free from dirt, and be very careful not to prick the outside skin, or they would lose their beautiful colour. Put them into boiling water, let them simmer gently, and when about three parts done, which will be in 1-1/2 hour, take them out and let them cool. Boil the vinegar with pepper and allspice, in the above proportion, for ten minutes, and when c
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BROWNING FOR GRAVIES AND SAUCES.
BROWNING FOR GRAVIES AND SAUCES.
373. The browning for soups ( see No. 108) answers equally well for sauces and gravies, when it is absolutely necessary to colour them in this manner; but where they can be made to look brown by using ketchup, wine, browned flour, tomatoes, or any colour sauce, it is far preferable. As, however, in cooking, so much depends on appearance, perhaps it would be as well for the inexperienced cook to use the artificial means (No. 108). When no browning is at hand, and you wish to heighten the colour o
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CLARIFIED BUTTER.
CLARIFIED BUTTER.
375. Put the butter in a basin before the fire, and when it melts, stir it round once or twice, and let it settle. Do not strain it unless absolutely necessary, as it causes so much waste. Pour it gently off into a clean dry jar, carefully leaving all sediment behind. Let it cool, and carefully exclude the air by means of a bladder, or piece of wash-leather, tied over. If the butter is salt, it may be washed before melting, when it is to be used for sweet dishes....
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MELTED BUTTER.
MELTED BUTTER.
376. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of butter, a dessertspoonful of flour, 1 wineglassful of water, salt to taste. Mode .—Cut the butter up into small pieces, put it in a saucepan, dredge over the flour, and add the water and a seasoning of salt; stir it one way constantly till the whole of the ingredients are melted and thoroughly blended. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve. If the butter is to be melted with cream, use the same quantity as of water, but omit the flour; keep stirring it, but do
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MELTED BUTTER MADE WITH MILK.
MELTED BUTTER MADE WITH MILK.
380. INGREDIENTS.—1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. butter, 1/3 pint of milk, a few grains of salt. Mode .—Mix the butter and flour smoothly together on a plate, put it into a lined saucepan, and pour in the milk. Keep stirring it one way over a sharp fire; let it boil quickly for a minute or two, and it is ready to serve. This is a very good foundation for onion, lobster, or oyster sauce: using milk instead of water makes it look so much whiter and more delicate. Time .—Altogether, 10 minutes. Aver
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CAMP VINEGAR.
CAMP VINEGAR.
381. INGREDIENTS.—1 head of garlic, 1/2 oz. cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of soy, 2 ditto walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar, cochineal to colour. Mode .—Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients, into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for a month, when strain it off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, to exclude the air. Average cost for this quantity, 8d....
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CAPER SAUCE FOR BOILED MUTTON.
CAPER SAUCE FOR BOILED MUTTON.
382. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter (No. 376), 3 tablespoonfuls of capers or nasturtiums, 1 tablespoonful of their liquor. Mode .—Chop the capers twice or thrice, and add them, with their liquor, to 1/2 pint of melted butter, made very smoothly; keep stirring well; let the sauce just simmer, and serve in a tureen. Pickled nasturtium-pods are fine-flavoured, and by many are eaten in preference to capers. They make an excellent sauce. Time .—2 minutes to simmer. Average cost for this quant
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CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH.
CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH.
383. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter No. 376, 3 dessertspoonfuls of capers, 1 dessertspoonful of their liquor, a small piece of glaze, if at hand (this may be dispensed with), 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, ditto of pepper, 1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence. Mode .—Cut the capers across once or twice, but do not chop them fine; put them in a saucepan with 1/2 pint of good melted butter, and add all the other ingredients. Keep stirring the whole until it just simmers, when it is ready to serve.
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PICKLED CAPSICUMS.
PICKLED CAPSICUMS.
385. INGREDIENTS.—Vinegar, 1/4 oz. of pounded mace, and 1/4 oz. of grated nutmeg, to each quart; brine. Mode .—Gather the pods with the stalks on, before they turn red; slit them down the side with a small-pointed knife, and remove the seeds only; put them in a strong brine for 3 days, changing it every morning; then take them out, lay them on a cloth, with another one over them, until they are perfectly free from moisture. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with mace and nutmeg in the above
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CELERY VINEGAR.
CELERY VINEGAR.
389. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 oz. of celery-seed, 1 pint of vinegar. Mode .—Crush the seed by pounding it in a mortar; boil the vinegar, and when cold, pour it to the seed; let it infuse for a fortnight, when strain and bottle off for use. This is frequently used in salads....
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CHESTNUT SAUCE FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.
CHESTNUT SAUCE FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.
390. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2 pint of white stock, 2 strips of lemon-peel, cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of cream or milk. Mode .—Peel off the outside skin of the chestnuts, and put them into boiling water for a few minutes; take off the thin inside peel, and put them into a saucepan, with the white stock and lemon-peel, and let them simmer for 1-1/2 hour, or until the chestnuts are quite tender. Rub the whole through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; add seasoning and the cream; let
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BROWN CHESTNUT SAUCE.
BROWN CHESTNUT SAUCE.
391. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2 pint of stock No. 105, 2 lumps of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce ( see Sauces). Mode .—Prepare the chestnuts as in the foregoing recipe, by scalding and peeling them; put them in a stewpan with the stock and sugar, and simmer them till tender. When done, add Spanish sauce in the above proportion, and rub the whole through a tammy. Keep this sauce rather liquid, as it is liable to thicken. Time .—1-1/2 hour to simmer the chestnuts. Average cos
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BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.
BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.
392. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lbs. of moist sugar, 3/4 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb. of garlic, 1/4 lb. of onions, 3/4 lb. of powdered ginger, 1/4 lb. of dried chilies, 3/4 lb. of mustard-seed, 3/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 2 bottles of best vinegar, 30 large unripe sour apples. Mode .—The sugar must be made into syrup; the garlic, onions, and ginger be finely pounded in a mortar; the mustard-seed be washed in cold vinegar, and dried in the sun; the apples be peeled, cored, and sliced, and boiled in a bottle and
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CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S SAUCE FOR MEAT OR GAME.
CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S SAUCE FOR MEAT OR GAME.
394. INGREDIENTS.-1 glass of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, ditto of pounded white sugar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, ditto of salt. Mode .—Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together, and heat the sauce gradually, by placing the vessel in which it is made in a saucepan of boiling water. Do not allow it to boil, and serve directly it is ready. This sauce, if bottled immediately, will keep good for a for
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CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH OR WHITE DISHES.
CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH OR WHITE DISHES.
397. INGREDIENTS.—1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, salt and cayenne to taste; when liked, a small quantity of pounded mace or lemon-juice. Mode .—Put the butter in a very clean saucepan, dredge in the flour, and keep shaking round till the butter is melted. Add the seasoning and cream, and stir the whole till it boils; let it just simmer for 5 minutes, when add either pounded mace or lemon-juice to taste, to give it a flavour. Time .—5 minutes to simmer. Average cost f
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CUCUMBER SAUCE.
CUCUMBER SAUCE.
398. INGREDIENTS.—3 or 4 cucumbers, 2 oz. of butter, 6 tablespoonfuls of brown gravy. Mode .—Peel the cucumbers, quarter them, and take out the seeds; cut them into small pieces; put them in a cloth, and rub them well, to take out the water which hangs about them. Put the butter in a saucepan, add the cucumbers, and shake them over a sharp fire until they are of a good colour. Then pour over it the gravy, mix this with the cucumbers, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, when it will be ready to ser
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PICKLED CUCUMBERS.
PICKLED CUCUMBERS.
399. INGREDIENTS.—1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger; sufficient vinegar to cover the cucumbers. Mode .—Cut the cucumbers in thick slices, sprinkle salt over them, and let them remain for 24 hours. The next day, drain them well for 6 hours, put them into a jar, pour boiling vinegar over them, and keep them in a warm place. In a short time, boil up the vinegar again, add pepper and ginger in the above proportion, and instantly cover them up. Tie them down with bladder, and in a few da
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GERMAN METHOD OF KEEPING CUCUMBERS FOR WINTER USE.
GERMAN METHOD OF KEEPING CUCUMBERS FOR WINTER USE.
402. INGREDIENTS.—Cucumbers, salt. Mode .—Pare and slice the cucumbers (as for the table), sprinkle well with salt, and let them remain for 24 hours; strain off the liquor, pack in jars, a thick layer of cucumbers and salt alternately; tie down closely, and, when wanted for use, take out the quantity required. Now wash them well in fresh water, and dress as usual with pepper, vinegar, and oil. [Illustration: THE CUCUMBER.] THE CUCUMBER.—Though the melon is far superior in point of flavour to thi
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DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH.
DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH.
405. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of 1/2 lemon; salt to taste. Mode .—Put all the ingredients, except the lemon-juice, into a stew-pan; set it over the fire, and keep continually stirring. When it is sufficiently thick, take it off, as it should not boil. If, however, it happens to curdle, strain the sauce through a tammy, add the lemon-juice, and serve. Tarragon vinegar may be used instead of plain, and, by m
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EGG SAUCE FOR SALT FISH.
EGG SAUCE FOR SALT FISH.
409. INGREDIENTS.—4 eggs, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376; when liked, a very little lemon-juice. Mode .—Boil the eggs until quite hard, which will be in about 20 minutes, and put them into cold water for 1/2 hour. Strip off the shells, chop the eggs into small pieces, not, however, too fine. Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376, and, when boiling, stir in the eggs, and serve very hot. Lemon-juice may be added at pleasure. Time .—20 minutes to boil the eggs. Average cost ,
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EPICUREAN SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, GRAVIES, OR FISH.
EPICUREAN SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, GRAVIES, OR FISH.
410. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 pint of walnut ketchup, 1/4 pint of mushroom ditto, 2 tablespoonfuls of Indian soy, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine; 1/4 oz. of white pepper, 2 oz. of shalots, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz. of cloves, 3/4 pint of vinegar. Mode .—Put the whole of the ingredients into a bottle, and let it remain for a fortnight in a warm place, occasionally shaking up the contents. Strain, and bottle off for use. This sauce will be found an agreeable addition to gravies, hashes, stews, &c
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FENNEL SAUCE FOR MACKEREL.
FENNEL SAUCE FOR MACKEREL.
412. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376, rather more than 1 tablespoonful of chopped fennel. Mode .—Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376; chop the fennel rather small, carefully cleansing it from any grit or dirt, and put it to the butter when this is on the point of boiling. Simmer for a minute or two, and serve in a tureen. Time .—2 minutes. Average cost , 4d. Sufficient to serve with 5 or 6 mackerel. [Illustration: FENNEL.] FENNEL.—This elegantly-growing plant,
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FORCEMEAT BALLS FOR FISH SOUPS.
FORCEMEAT BALLS FOR FISH SOUPS.
414. INGREDIENTS.—1 middling-sized lobster, 1/2 an anchovy, 1 head of boiled celery, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste; 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs. Mode .—Pick the meat from the shell of the lobster, and pound it, with the soft parts, in a mortar; add the celery, the yolk of the hard-boiled egg, seasoning, and bread crumbs. Continue pounding till the whole is nicely amalgamated. Warm the butter till it is in a liquid state; well whisk
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FORCEMEAT FOR COLD SAVOURY PIES.
FORCEMEAT FOR COLD SAVOURY PIES.
415. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of fat bacon; salt, cayenne, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; a very little nutmeg, the same of chopped lemon-peel, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs. Mode .—Chop the veal and bacon together, and put them in a mortar with the other ingredients mentioned above. Pound well, and bind with 1 or 2 eggs which have been previously beaten and strained. Work the whole well together, and the forcemeat will be r
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FRENCH FORCEMEAT.
FRENCH FORCEMEAT.
419. It will be well to state, in the beginning of this recipe, that French forcemeat, or quenelles, consist of the blending of three separate processes; namely, panada, udder, and whatever meat you intend using....
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PANADA.
PANADA.
420. INGREDIENTS.—The crumb of 2 penny rolls, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, No. 107, 1 oz. of butter, 1 slice of ham, 1 bay-leaf, a little minced parsley, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, a few mushrooms (when obtainable), butter, the yolks of 2 eggs. Mode .—Soak the crumb of the rolls in milk for about 1/2 hour, then take it out, and squeeze so as to press the milk from it; put the soaked bread into a stewpan with the above quantity of white stock, and set it on one side; then put into
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FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.
FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.
424. Cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a cool oven overnight, and when thoroughly dry and crisp, roll them down into fine crumbs. Put some lard, or clarified dripping, into a frying-pan; bring it to the boiling-point, throw in the crumbs, and fry them very quickly. Directly they are done, lift them out with a slice, and drain them before the fire from all greasy moisture. When quite crisp, they are ready for use. The fat they are fried in should be clear, and the crumbs should not ha
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FRIED BREAD FOR BORDERS.
FRIED BREAD FOR BORDERS.
426. Proceed as above, by frying some slices of bread cut in any fanciful shape. When quite crisp, dip one side of the sippet into the beaten white of an egg mixed with a little flour, and place it on the edge of the dish. Continue in this manner till the border is completed, arranging the sippets a pale and a dark one alternately. GENEVESE SAUCE FOR SALMON, TROUT, &c. 427. INGREDIENTS.—1 small carrot, a small faggot of sweet herbs, including parsley, 1 onion, 5 or 6 mushrooms (when obta
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BROWN GRAVY.
BROWN GRAVY.
436. INGREDIENTS.—2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, 2 small slices of lean bacon (if at hand), salt and whole pepper to taste, 3 cloves, 2 quarts of water. For thickening, 2 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of flour. Mode .—Put the butter into a stewpan; set this on the fire, throw in the onions cut in rings, and fry them a light brown; then add the beef and bacon, which should be cut into small square pieces; season, and pour in a teacupful of water; let it boil for about ten minutes
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CHEAP GRAVY FOR MINCED VEAL.
CHEAP GRAVY FOR MINCED VEAL.
443. INGREDIENTS.—Bones and trimmings of cold roast or boiled veal, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 onion, 1/4 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, the juice of 1/4 lemon; thickening of butter and flour. Mode .—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, except the thickening and lemon-juice, and let them simmer very gently for rather more than 1 hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a pint, when strain through a hair-sieve. Add a thickening of butter and flou
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GRAVY FOR VENISON.
GRAVY FOR VENISON.
444. INGREDIENTS.—Trimmings of venison, 3 or 4 mutton shank-bones, salt to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut ketchup. Mode .—Brown the trimmings over a nice clear fire, and put them in a stewpan with the shank-bones and water; simmer gently for 2 hours, strain and skim, and add the walnut ketchup and a seasoning of salt. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve. Time .—2 hours. [Illustration: THE DEER.] VENISON.—Far, far away in ages past, our fathers loved the chase, and what
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TO PICKLE LEMONS WITH THE PEEL ON.
TO PICKLE LEMONS WITH THE PEEL ON.
455. INGREDIENTS.—6 lemons, 2 quarts of boiling water; to each quart of vinegar allow 1/2 oz. of cloves, 1/2 oz. of white pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/4 oz. of mace and chilies, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1/2 stick of sliced horseradish, a few cloves of garlic. Mode .—Put the lemons into a brine that will bear an egg; let them remain in it 6 days, stirring them every day; have ready 2 quarts of boiling water, put in the lemons, and allow them to boil for 1/4 hour; take them out, and let them l
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LEMON BRANDY.
LEMON BRANDY.
460. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of brandy, the rind of two small lemons, 2 oz. of loaf-sugar, 1/4 pint of water. Mode .—Peel the lemons rather thin, taking care to have none of the white pith. Put the rinds into a bottle with the brandy, and let them infuse for 24 hours, when they should be strained. Now boil the sugar with the water for a few minutes, skim it, and, when cold, add it to the brandy. A dessertspoonful of this will be found an excellent flavouring for boiled custards. LEMON RIND OR PEEL.—
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LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE FOR POULTRY.
LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE FOR POULTRY.
462. INGREDIENTS.—The liver of a fowl, one lemon, salt to taste, 1/2 pint of melted butter. No. 376. Mode .—Wash the liver, and let it boil for a few minutes; peel the lemon very thin, remove the white part and pips, and cut it into very small dice; mince the liver and a small quantity of the lemon rind very fine; add these ingredients to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; season with a little salt, put in the cut lemon, heat it gradually, but do not allow it to boil, lest the butter shoul
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LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE FOR POULTRY.
LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE FOR POULTRY.
463. INGREDIENTS.—The liver of a fowl, one tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376. Mode .—Wash and score the liver, boil it for a few minutes, and mince it very fine; blanch or scald a small bunch of parsley, of which there should be sufficient when chopped to fill a tablespoon; add this, with the minced liver, to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; let it just boil; when serve. Time .—1 minute to simmer. Sufficient for a pair of small fowls. LOBSTER SAUCE, to s
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MAIGRE MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT).
MAIGRE MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT).
(Made without Meat.) 467. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376; 1 heaped tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of 1/2 large lemon; when liked, 2 minced shalots. Mode .—Make 1/2 pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 376; stir in the above ingredients, and let them just boil; when it is ready to serve. Time .—1 minute to simmer. Average cost , 9d. per pint. MAYONNAISE, a Sauce or Salad-Dressing for cold Chicken, Meat, and other cold Dishes. 468. INGREDIENT
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MIXED PICKLE.
MIXED PICKLE.
( Very Good .) 471. INGREDIENTS.—To each gallon of vinegar allow 1/4 lb. of bruised ginger, 1/4 lb. of mustard, 1/4 lb. of salt, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1-1/2 oz. of turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, cauliflowers, onions, celery, sliced cucumbers, gherkins, French beans, nasturtiums, capsicums. Mode .—Have a large jar, with a tightly-fitting lid, in which put as much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the various powders to a smooth paste. Put into a basin th
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MUSHROOM KETCHUP.
MUSHROOM KETCHUP.
472. INGREDIENTS.—To each peck of mushrooms 1/2 lb. of salt; to each quart of mushroom-liquor 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1/2 oz. of ginger, 2 blades of pounded mace. Mode .—Choose full-grown mushroom-flaps, and take care they are perfectly fresh-gathered when the weather is tolerably dry; for, if they are picked during very heavy rain, the ketchup from which they are made is liable to get musty, and will not keep long. Put a layer of them in a deep pan, sprinkle salt over them, and
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II.
II.
A More Simple Method . 476. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380; 1/2 pint of button mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, if at hand; cayenne and salt to taste. Mode .—Make the melted butter by recipe No. 380, and add to it the mushrooms, which must be nicely cleaned, and free from grit, and the stalks cut off. Let them simmer gently for about 10 minutes, or until they are quite tender. Put in the seasoning and ketchup; let it just boil, when serve. Time .
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PICKLED MUSHROOMS.
PICKLED MUSHROOMS.
478. INGREDIENTS.—Sufficient vinegar to cover the mushrooms; to each quart of mushrooms, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 oz. of ground pepper, salt to taste. Mode .—Choose some nice young button mushrooms for pickling, and rub off the skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the stalks; if very large, take out the red inside, and reject the black ones, as they are too old. Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, with pounded mace and pepper in the above proportion; shake them well
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HOW TO MIX MUSTARD.
HOW TO MIX MUSTARD.
480. INGREDIENTS.—Mustard, salt, and water. Mode .—Mustard should be mixed with water that has been boiled and allowed to cool; hot water destroys its essential properties, and raw cold water might cause it to ferment. Put the mustard in a cup, with a small pinch of salt, and mix with it very gradually sufficient boiled water to make it drop from the spoon without being watery. Stir and mix well, and rub the lumps well down with the back of a spoon, as well-mixed mustard should be perfectly free
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TARTAR MUSTARD.
TARTAR MUSTARD.
481. INGREDIENTS.—Horseradish vinegar, cayenne, 1/2 a teacupful of mustard. Mode .—Have ready sufficient horseradish vinegar to mix with the above proportion of mustard; put the mustard in a cup, with a slight seasoning of cayenne; mix it perfectly smooth with the vinegar, adding this a little at a time; rub down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear, and do not let it be too thin. Mustard may be flavoured in various ways, with Tarragon, shalot, celery, and many other vinegars, herb
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BROWN ONION SAUCE.
BROWN ONION SAUCE.
485. INGREDIENTS.—6 large onions, rather more than 1/2 pint of good gravy, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste. Mode .—Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown in a stewpan, with the above quantity of butter, keeping them well stirred, that they do not get black. When a nice colour, pour over the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender. Now skim off every particle of fat, add the seasoning, and rub the whole through a tammy or sieve; put it back in the saucepan to warm, and when it
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PICKLED ONIONS.
PICKLED ONIONS.
487. INGREDIENTS.—1 gallon of pickling onions, salt and water, milk; to each 1/2 gallon of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/4 oz. of whole nutmeg bruised, 8 cloves, 1/4 oz. of mace. Mode .—Gather the onions, which should not be too small, when they are quite dry and ripe; wipe off the dirt, but do not pare them; make a strong solution of salt and water, into which put the onions, and change this, morning and night, fo
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OYSTER KETCHUP.
OYSTER KETCHUP.
490. INGREDIENTS.—Sufficient oysters to fill a pint measure, 1 pint of sherry, 3 oz. of salt, 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms of pounded mace. Mode .—Procure the oysters very fresh, and open sufficient to fill a pint measure; save the liquor, and scald the oysters in it with the sherry; strain the oysters, and put them in a mortar with the salt, cayenne, and mace; pound the whole until reduced to a pulp, then add it to the liquor in which they were scalded; boil it again five minutes, and skim we
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PICKLED OYSTERS.
PICKLED OYSTERS.
491. INGREDIENTS.—100 oysters; to each 1/2 pint of vinegar, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 12 black peppercorns. Mode .—Get the oysters in good condition, open them, place them in a saucepan, and let them simmer in their own liquor for about 10 minutes, very gently; then take them out, one by one, and place them in a jar, and cover them, when cold, with a pickle made as follows:—Measure the oyster-liquor; add to it the same quantity of vinegar, with mace, lemon-peel, and pepper
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TO PRESERVE PARSLEY THROUGH THE WINTER.
TO PRESERVE PARSLEY THROUGH THE WINTER.
496. Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping, and wash it perfectly free from grit and dirt; put it into boiling water which has been slightly salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3 minutes; take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of the fire, when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it away in a very dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use, pour over it a little warm water, and let it stand for about 5 minutes. Seasonable .—This may
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AN EXCELLENT PICKLE.
AN EXCELLENT PICKLE.
497. INGREDIENTS.—Equal quantities of medium-sized onions, cucumbers, and sauce-apples; 1-1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 3/4 teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 wineglassful of soy, 1 wineglassful of sherry; vinegar. Mode .—Slice sufficient cucumbers, onions, and apples to fill a pint stone jar, taking care to cut the slices very thin; arrange them in alternate layers, shaking in as you proceed salt and cayenne in the above proportion; pour in the soy and wine, and fill up with vinegar. It will be fit for use t
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READING SAUCE.
READING SAUCE.
502. INGREDIENTS.—2-1/2 pints of walnut pickle, 1-1/2 oz. of shalots, 1 quart of spring water, 3/4 pint of Indian soy, 1/2 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/2 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 anchovy, 1/2 oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz. of dried sweet bay-leaves. Mode .—Bruise the shalots in a mortar, and put them in a stone jar with the walnut-liquor; place it before the fire, and let it boil until reduced to 2 pints. Then, into another jar, put all the ingredients except the bay-leaves, taking care
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III.
III.
508. INGREDIENTS.—1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of salad oil, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream. Mode .—Prepare and mix the ingredients by the preceding recipe, and be very particular that the whole is well stirred. Note .—In making salads, the vegetables, &c., should never be added to the sauce very long before they are wanted for table; the dressing, however, may always be prepared so
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A GOOD SAUCE FOR VARIOUS BOILED PUDDINGS.
A GOOD SAUCE FOR VARIOUS BOILED PUDDINGS.
514. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar, a wineglassful of brandy or rum. Mode .—Beat the butter to a cream, until no lumps remain; add the pounded sugar, and brandy or rum; stir once or twice until the whole is thoroughly mixed, and serve. This sauce may either be poured round the pudding or served in a tureen, according to the taste or fancy of the cook or mistress. Average cost , 8d. for this quantity. Sufficient for a pudding. SAUCE ROBERT, for Steaks, &c. 515.
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A GOOD SAUCE FOR STEAKS.
A GOOD SAUCE FOR STEAKS.
516. INGREDIENTS.—1 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of salt, 1/2 oz. grated horseradish, 1/2 oz. of pickled shalots, 1 pint of mushroom ketchup or walnut pickle. Mode .—Pound all the ingredients finely in a mortar, and put them into the ketchup or walnut-liquor. Let them stand for a fortnight, when strain off the liquor and bottle for use. Either pour a little of the sauce over the steaks or mix it in the gravy. Seasonable .—This can be made at any time. Note .—In using a j
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SAUCE FOR WILDFOWL.
SAUCE FOR WILDFOWL.
519. INGREDIENTS.—1 glass of port wine, 1 tablespoonful of Leamington sauce (No. 459), 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 slice of lemon-peel, 1 large shalot cut in slices, 1 blade of mace, cayenne to taste. Mode .—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, set it over the fire, and let it simmer for about 5 minutes; then strain and serve the sauce in a tureen. Time .—5 minutes. Average cost , for this quantity, 8d. SAUSAGE-MEAT STUFFING, for Turkey. 520. INGREDI
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SAVOURY JELLY FOR MEAT PIES.
SAVOURY JELLY FOR MEAT PIES.
521. INGREDIENTS.—3 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 calf's-foot, 3 lbs. of knuckle of veal, poultry trimmings (if for game pies, any game trimmings), 2 onions stuck with cloves, 2 carrots, 4 shalots, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 bay-leaves; when liked, 2 blades of mace and a little spice; 2 slices of lean ham, rather more than 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Cut up the meat and put it into a stewpan with all the ingredients except the water; set it over a slow fire to draw down, and, when the gravy ceases to f
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SPINACH GREEN FOR COLOURING VARIOUS DISHES.
SPINACH GREEN FOR COLOURING VARIOUS DISHES.
523. INGREDIENTS.—2 handfuls of spinach. Mode .—Pick and wash the spinach free from dirt, and pound the leaves in a mortar to extract the juice; then press it through a hair sieve, and put the juice into a small stewpan or jar. Place this in a bain marie, or saucepan of boiling water, and let it set. Watch it closely, as it should not boil; and, as soon as it is done, lay it in a sieve, so that all the water may drain from it, and the green will then be ready for colouring. If made according to
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SPANISH ONIONS—PICKLED.
SPANISH ONIONS—PICKLED.
527. INGREDIENTS.—Onions, vinegar; salt and cayenne to taste. Mode .—Cut the onions in thin slices; put a layer of them in the bottom of a jar; sprinkle with salt and cayenne; then add another layer of onions, and season as before. Proceeding in this manner till the jar is full, pour in sufficient vinegar to cover the whole, and the pickle will be fit for use in a month. Seasonable .—May be had in England from September to February. STORE SAUCE, or CHEROKEE. 528. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 oz. of cayenne
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II.
II.
531. INGREDIENTS.—1 dozen tomatoes, 2 teaspoonfuls of the best powdered ginger, 1 dessertspoonful of salt, 1 head of garlic chopped fine, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful of Chili vinegar (a small quantity of cayenne may be substituted for this). Mode .—Choose ripe tomatoes, put them into a stone jar, and stand them in a cool oven until quite tender; when cold, take the skins and stalks from them, mix the pulp with the liquor which is in the jar, but do not strain it; add all the o
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III.
III.
532. INGREDIENTS.—3 dozen tomatoes; to every pound of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of Chili vinegar, 1 oz. of garlic, 1 oz. of shalot, 2 oz. of salt, 1 large green capsicum, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne, 2 pickled gherkins, 6 pickled onions, 1 pint of common vinegar, and the juice of 6 lemons. Mode .—Choose the tomatoes when quite ripe and red; put them in a jar with a cover to it, and bake them till tender. The better way is to put them in the oven overnight, when it will not be too hot, and examine
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UNIVERSAL PICKLE.
UNIVERSAL PICKLE.
533. INGREDIENTS.—To 6 quarts of vinegar allow 1 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb. of ginger, 1 oz. of mace, 1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 tablespoonful of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1-1/2 oz. of turmeric. Mode .—Boil all the ingredients together for about 20 minutes; when cold, put them into a jar with whatever vegetables you choose, such as radish-pods, French beans, cauliflowers, gherkins, &c. &c., as these come into season; put them in fresh as you gather them, having previously wiped them p
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WALNUT KETCHUP.
WALNUT KETCHUP.
535. INGREDIENTS.—100 walnuts, 1 handful of salt, 1 quart of vinegar, 1/4 oz. of mace, 1/4 oz. of nutmeg, 1/4 oz. of cloves, 1/4 oz. of ginger, 1/4 oz. of whole black pepper, a small piece of horseradish, 20 shalots, 1/4 lb. of anchovies, 1 pint of port wine. Mode .—Procure the walnuts at the time you can run a pin through them, slightly bruise, and put them into a jar with the salt and vinegar, let them stand 8 days, stirring every day; then drain the liquor from them, and boil it, with the abo
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II.
II.
536. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 sieve of walnut-shells, 2 quarts of water, salt, 1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 oz. of mace, 1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of garlic. Mode .—Put the walnut-shells into a pan, with the water, and a large quantity of salt; let them stand for 10 days, then break the shells up in the water, and let it drain through a sieve, putting a heavy weight on the top to express the juice; place it on the fire, and remove all scum that may arise. Now boil the liquor with the shalot
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CHAPTER XI. GENERAL REMARKS.
CHAPTER XI. GENERAL REMARKS.
540. In Our "INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY" ( see No. 76) we have described the gradual progress of mankind in the art of cookery, the probability being, that the human race, for a long period, lived wholly on fruits. Man's means of attacking animals, even if he had the desire of slaughtering them, were very limited, until he acquired the use of arms. He, however, made weapons for himself, and, impelled by a carnivorous instinct, made prey of the animals that surrounded him. It is natural that man sho
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BAKING.
BAKING.
[Illustration: BAKING DISH.] 551. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROASTING MEAT AND BAKING IT, may be generally described as consisting in the fact, that, in baking it, the fumes caused by the operation are not carried off in the same way as occurs in roasting. Much, however, of this disadvantage is obviated by the improved construction of modern ovens, and of especially those in connection with the Leamington kitchener, of which we give an engraving here, and a full description of which will be seen at
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BOILING.
BOILING.
556. BOILING, or the preparation of meat by hot water, though one of the easiest processes in cookery, requires skilful management. Boiled meat should be tender, savoury, and full of its own juice, or natural gravy; but, through the carelessness and ignorance of cooks, it is too often sent to table hard, tasteless, and innutritious. To insure a successful result in boiling flesh, the heat of the fire must be judiciously regulated, the proper quantity of water must be kept up in the pot, and the
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BROILING.
BROILING.
[Illustration: REVOLVING GRIDIRON.] 569. GENERALLY SPEAKING, small dishes only are prepared by this mode of cooking; amongst these, the beef-steak and mutton chop of the solitary English diner may be mentioned as celebrated all the world over. Our beef-steak, indeed, has long crossed the Channel; and, with a view of pleasing the Britons, there is in every carte at every French restaurant, by the side of à la Marengo , and à la Mayonnaise,—bifteck d'Angleterre . In order to succeed in a broil, th
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FRYING.
FRYING.
[Illustration: SAUTÉ PAN.] 571. THIS VERY FAVOURITE MODE OF COOKING may be accurately described as boiling in fat or oil. Substances dressed in this way are generally well received, for they introduce an agreeable variety, possessing, as they do, a peculiar flavour. By means of frying, cooks can soon satisfy many requisitions made on them, it being a very expeditious mode of preparing dishes for the table, and one which can be employed when the fire is not sufficiently large for the purposes of
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COOKING BY GAS.
COOKING BY GAS.
[Illustration: GAS STOVE.] 575. GAS-COOKING can scarcely now be considered a novelty,—many establishments, both small and large, have been fitted with apparatus for cooking by this mode, which undoubtedly exhibits some advantages. Thus the heat may be more regularly supplied to the substance cooking, and the operation is essentially a clean one, because there can be no cinders or other dirt to be provided for. Some labour and attention necessary, too, with a coal fire or close stove, may be save
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ROASTING.
ROASTING.
577. OF THE VARIOUS METHODS OF PREPARING MEAT, ROASTING is that which most effectually preserves its nutritive qualities. Meat is roasted by being exposed to the direct influence of the fire. This is done by placing the meat before an open grate, and keeping it in motion to prevent the scorching on any particular part. When meat is properly roasted, the outer layer of its albumen is coagulated, and thus presents a barrier to the exit of the juice. In roasting meat, the heat must be strongest at
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CHAPTER XII. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON QUADRUPEDS.
CHAPTER XII. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON QUADRUPEDS.
585. BY THE GENERAL ASSENT OF MANKIND, THE EMPIRE OF NATURE has been divided into three kingdoms; the first consisting of minerals, the second of vegetables, and the third of animals. The Mineral Kingdom comprises all substances which are without those organs necessary to locomotion, and the due performance of the functions of life. They are composed of the accidental aggregation of particles, which, under certain circumstances, take a constant and regular figure, but which are more frequently f
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FORE QUARTER.
FORE QUARTER.
9. Five ribs, called the fore-rib.—This is considered the primest roasting piece. 10. Four ribs, called the middle-rib,—greatly esteemed by housekeepers as the most economical joint for roasting. 11. Two ribs, called the chuck-rib,—used for second quality of steaks. 12. Leg-of-mutton piece,—the muscles of the shoulder dissected from the breast. 13. Brisket, or breast,—used for boiling, after being salted. 14. Neck, clod, and sticking-piece,—used for soups, gravies, stocks, pies, and mincing for
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CHAPTER XIII.
CHAPTER XIII.
BAKED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery). 598. INGREDIENTS.—About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef, 2 small onions, 1 large carrot or two small ones, 1 turnip, a small bunch of savoury herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, 3 tablespoonfuls of ale, crust or mashed potatoes. Mode .—Cut the beef in slices, allowing a small amount of fat to each slice; place a layer of this in the bottom of a pie-dish, with a portion of the onions, carrots, and turnips, which must be sliced; mince the herbs, st
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II.
II.
599. INGREDIENTS.—Slices of cold roast beef, salt and pepper to taste, 1 sliced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 5 or 6 tablespoonfuls of gravy or sauce of any kind, mashed potatoes. Mode .—Butter the sides of a deep dish, and spread mashed potatoes over the bottom of it; on this place layers of beef in thin slices (this may be minced if there is not sufficient beef to cut into slices), well seasoned with pepper and salt, and a very little onion end herbs, which should be previously
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BEEF A LA MODE.
BEEF A LA MODE.
( Economical .) 601. INGREDIENTS.—About 3 lbs. of clod or sticking of beef, 2 oz. of clarified dripping, 1 large onion, flour, 2 quarts of water, 12 berries of allspice, 2 bay-leaves, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole black pepper, salt to taste. Mode .—Cut the beef into small pieces, and roll them in flour; put the dripping into a stewpan with the onion, which should be sliced thin. Let it get quite hot; lay in the pieces of beef, and stir them well about. When nicely browned all over, add by degrees bo
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BEEF A LA MODE.
BEEF A LA MODE.
602. INGREDIENTS.—6 or 7 lbs. of the thick flank of beef, a few slices of fat bacon, 1 teacupful of vinegar, black pepper, allspice, 2 cloves well mixed and finely pounded, making altogether 1 heaped teaspoonful; salt to taste, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, all finely minced and well mixed; 3 onions, 2 large carrots, 1 turnip, 1 head of celery, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 glass of port wine. Mode .—Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown, and cut up the other vegetables in small piece
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BEEF-STEAK PIE.
BEEF-STEAK PIE.
604. INGREDIENTS.—3 lbs. of rump-steak, seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, and black pepper, crust, water, the yolk of an egg. Mode .—Have the steaks cut from a rump that has hung a few days, that they may be tender, and be particular that every portion is perfectly sweet. Cut the steaks into pieces about 3 inches long and 2 wide, allowing a small piece of fat to each piece of lean, and arrange the meat in layers in a pie-dish. Between each layer sprinkle a seasoning of salt, pepper, and, when
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BEEF CAKE.
BEEF CAKE.
610. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold roast beef; to each pound of cold meat allow 1/4 lb. of bacon or ham; seasoning to taste of pepper and salt, 1 small bunch of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs. Mode .—Mince the beef very finely (if underdone it will be better), add to it the bacon, which must also be chopped very small, and mix well together. Season, stir in the herbs, and bind with an egg, or 2 should 1 not be sufficient. Make it into small square cakes, about 1/2 inch thick, fry them in h
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BROILED BEEF-BONES.
BROILED BEEF-BONES.
614. INGREDIENTS.—The bones of ribs or sirloin; salt, pepper, and cayenne. Mode .—Separate the bones, taking care that the meat on them is not too thick in any part; sprinkle them well with the above seasoning, and broil over a very clear fire. When nicely browned they are done; but do not allow them to blacken....
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TO DRESS A BULLOCK'S HEART.
TO DRESS A BULLOCK'S HEART.
615. INGREDIENTS.—1 heart, stuffing of veal forcemeat, No. 417. Mode .—Put the heart into warm water to soak for 2 hours; then wipe it well with a cloth, and, after cutting off the lobes, stuff the inside with a highly-seasoned forcemeat (No. 417). Fasten it in, by means of a needle and coarse thread; tie the heart up in paper, and set it before a good fire, being very particular to keep it well basted, or it will eat dry, there being very little of its own fat. Two or three minutes before servi
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BEEF-COLLOPS.
BEEF-COLLOPS.
618. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of rump-steak, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 pint of gravy (water may be substituted for this), salt and pepper to taste, 1 shalot finely minced, 1/2 pickled walnut, 1 teaspoonful of capers. Mode .—Have the steak cut thin, and divide it in pieces about 3 inches long; beat these with the blade of a knife, and dredge with flour. Put them in a frying-pan with the butter, and let them fry for about 3 minutes; then lay them in a small stewpan, and pour over them the gravy. Add a piece
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TO CLARIFY BEEF DRIPPING.
TO CLARIFY BEEF DRIPPING.
621. Good and fresh dripping answers very well for basting everything except game and poultry, and, when well clarified, serves for frying nearly as well as lard; it should be kept in a cool place, and will remain good some time. To clarify it, put the dripping into a basin, pour over it boiling water, and keep stirring the whole to wash away the impurities. Let it stand to cool, when the water and dirty sediment will settle at the bottom of the basin. Remove the dripping, and put it away in jar
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ANOTHER WAY.
ANOTHER WAY.
622. Put the dripping into a clean saucepan, and let it boil for a few minutes over a slow fire, and be careful to skim it well. Let it stand to cool a little, then strain it through a piece of muslin into jars for use. Beef dripping is preferable to any other for cooking purposes, as, with mutton dripping, there is liable to be a tallowy taste and smell. ROAST FILLET OF BEEF (Larded). 623. INGREDIENTS.—About 4 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin, 1 onion, a small bunch of parsley, salt and
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FRICANDEAU OF BEEF.
FRICANDEAU OF BEEF.
624. INGREDIENTS.—About 3 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin (a piece of the rump may be substituted for this), pepper and salt to taste, 3 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 6 whole allspice, 1 pint of stock No. 105, or water, 1 glass of sherry, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2 shalots, bacon. Mode .—Cut some bacon into thin strips, and sprinkle over them a seasoning of pepper and salt, mixed with cloves, mace, and allspice, well pounded. Lard the beef with these, put it into a stewpan with the stock o
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FRIED RUMP-STEAK.
FRIED RUMP-STEAK.
626. INGREDIENTS.—Steaks, butter or clarified dripping. Mode . Although broiling is a far superior method of cooking steaks to frying them, yet, when the cook is not very expert, the latter mode may be adopted; and, when properly done, the dish may really look very inviting, and the flavour be good. The steaks should be cut rather thinner than for broiling, and with a small quantity of fat to each. Put some butter or clarified dripping into a frying-pan; let it get quite hot, then lay in the ste
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II.
II.
629. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of ribs or sirloin of beef, 2 onions, 1 carrot, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 blade of pounded mace, thickening of flour, rather more than 1 pint of water. Mode .—Take off all the meat from the bones of ribs or sirloin of beef; remove the outside brown and gristle; place the meat on one side, and well stew the bones and pieces, with the above ingredients, for about 2 hours, till it becomes a strong gravy, and is reduced to rather more than
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TO PREPARE HUNG BEEF.
TO PREPARE HUNG BEEF.
630. This is preserved by salting and drying, either with or without smoke. Hang up the beef 3 or 4 days, till it becomes tender, but take care it does not begin to spoil; then salt it in the usual way, either by dry-salting or by brine, with bay-salt, brown sugar, saltpetre, and a little pepper and allspice; afterwards roll it tight in a cloth, and hang it up in a warm, but not hot place, for a fortnight or more, till it is sufficiently hard. If required to have a little of the smoky flavour, i
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HUNTER'S BEEF.
HUNTER'S BEEF.
631. INGREDIENTS.—For a round of beef weighing 25 lbs. allow 3 oz. of saltpetre, 3 oz. of coarse sugar, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 grated nutmeg, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1 lb. of salt, 1/2 lb. bay-salt. Mode .—Let the beef hang for 2 or 3 days, and remove the bone. Pound spices, salt, &c. in the above proportion, and let them be reduced to the finest powder. Put the beef into a pan, rub all the ingredients well into it, and turn and rub it every day for rather more than a fortnight. When it has bee
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TO DRESS BEEF KIDNEY.
TO DRESS BEEF KIDNEY.
632. INGREDIENTS.—1 kidney, clarified butter, pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of highly-seasoned gravy, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of powdered sugar. Mode .—Cut the kidneys into neat slices, put them into warm water to soak for 2 hours, and change the water 2 or 3 times; then put them on a clean cloth to dry the water from them, and lay them in a frying-pan with some clarified butter, and fry them of a nice brown; season each side with pepper and salt, put them ro
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II.
II.
633. INGREDIENTS.—1 kidney, 1 dessertspoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced shalot, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of gravy, No. 438, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry. Mode .—Take off a little of the kidney fat, mince it very fine, and put it in a frying-pan; slice the kidney, sprinkle over it parsley and shalots in the above proportion, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and fry it of a nice brown. When it is done enough, dredge over a little flour, and pour in the gravy and sherry.
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III.
III.
A more Simple Method . 634. Cut the kidney into thin slices, flour them, and fry of a nice brown. When done, make a gravy in the pan by pouring away the fat, putting in a small piece of butter, 1/4 pint of boiling water, pepper and salt, and a tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. Let the gravy just boil up, pour over the kidney, and serve. 635. INGREDIENTS.—Bones, a small piece of common paste, a floured cloth. Mode .—Have the bones neatly sawed into convenient sizes, and cover the ends with a sma
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MIROTON OF BEEF.
MIROTON OF BEEF.
637. INGREDIENTS.—A few slices of cold roast beef, 3 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 3 onions, 1/2 pint of gravy. Mode .—Slice the onions and put them into a frying-pan with the cold beef and butter; place it over the fire, and keep turning and stirring the ingredients to prevent them burning. When of a pale brown, add the gravy and seasoning; let it simmer for a few minutes, and serve very hot. This dish is excellent and economical. Time .—5 minutes. Average cost , exclusive of the mea
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STEWED OX-CHEEK.
STEWED OX-CHEEK.
638. INGREDIENTS.—1 cheek, salt and water, 4 or 5 onions, butter and flour, 6 cloves, 3 turnips, 2 carrots, 1 bay-leaf, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, cayenne, black pepper and salt to taste, 1 oz. of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of Chili vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey's sauce. Mode .—Have the cheek boned, and prepare it the day before it is to be eaten, by cleaning and putting it to s
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STEWED OX-TAILS.
STEWED OX-TAILS.
640. INGREDIENTS.—2 ox-tails, 1 onion, 3 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 1 teaspoonful of whole black pepper, 1 teaspoonful of allspice, 1/2 a teaspoonful of salt, a small bunch of savoury herbs, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. Mode .—Divide the tails at the joints, wash, and put them into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and set them on the fire; when the water boils, remove the scum, and add the onion cut into rings, t
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II.
II.
( Economical .) 651. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of underdone cold roast beef, bread crumbs, 1 shalot finely minced, pepper and salt to taste, gravy made from the beef bones, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. Mode .—Cut some slices of underdone roast beef about half an inch thick; sprinkle over them some bread crumbs, minced shalot, and a little of the fat and seasoning; roll them, and fasten with a small skewer. Have ready some gravy made from the beef bones; put
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TO PICKLE PART OF A ROUND OF BEEF FOR HANGING.
TO PICKLE PART OF A ROUND OF BEEF FOR HANGING.
655. INGREDIENTS.—For 14 lbs. of a round of beef allow 1-1/2 lb. of salt, 1/2 oz. of powdered saltpetre; or, 1 lb. of salt, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 4 oz. of powdered saltpetre. Mode .—Rub in, and sprinkle either of the above mixtures on 14 lbs. of meat. Keep it in an earthenware pan, or a deep wooden tray, and turn twice a week during 3 weeks; then bind up the beef tightly with coarse linen tape, and hang it in a kitchen in which a fire is constantly kept, for 3 weeks. Pork, hams, and bacon may be cur
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ROAST RIBS OF BEEF.
ROAST RIBS OF BEEF.
657. INGREDIENTS.—Beef, a little salt. Mode .—-The fore-rib is considered the primest roasting piece, but the middle-rib is considered the most economical. Let the meat be well hung (should the weather permit), and cut off the thin ends of the bones, which should be salted for a few days, and then boiled. Put the meat down to a nice clear fire, put some clean dripping into the pan, dredge the joint with a little flour, and keep continually basting the whole time. Sprinkle some fine salt over it
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BEEF SAUSAGES.
BEEF SAUSAGES.
662. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of suet allow 2 lbs. of lean beef; seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and mixed spices. Mode .—Clear the suet from skin, and chop that and the beef as finely as possible; season with pepper, salt, and spices, and mix the whole well together. Make it into flat cakes, and fry of a nice brown. Many persons pound the meat in a mortar after it is chopped ( but this is not necessary when the meat is minced finely.) Time .—10 minutes. Average cost , for this quantity, 1s
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STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF.
STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF.
669. INGREDIENTS.—7 lbs. of a brisket of beef, vinegar and salt, 6 carrots, 6 turnips, 6 small onions, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 whole allspice pounded, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup; stock, or water. Mode .—About an hour before dressing it, rub the meat over with vinegar and salt; put it into a stewpan, with sufficient stock to cover it (when this is not at hand, water may be substituted for it), and be particular that the stewpan is not much larger than the meat.
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STEWED RUMP OF BEEF.
STEWED RUMP OF BEEF.
670. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 rump of beef, sufficient stock to cover it (No. 105), 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1 large bunch of savoury herbs, 2 onions, 12 cloves, pepper and salt to taste, thickening of butter and flour, 1 glass of port wine. Mode .—Cut out the bone, sprinkle the meat with a little cayenne (this must be sparingly used), and bind and tie it firmly up with tape; put it into a stewpan with sufficient stock to cover it, and add vinegar, ketchup, herbs, onions
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BOILED TONGUE.
BOILED TONGUE.
673. INGREDIENTS.—1 tongue, a bunch of savoury herbs, water. Mode .—In choosing a tongue, ascertain how long it has been dried or pickled, and select one with a smooth skin, which denotes its being young and tender. If a dried one, and rather hard, soak it at least for 12 hours previous to cooking it; if, however, it is fresh from the pickle, 2 or 3 hours will be sufficient for it to remain in sock. Put the tongue in a stewpan with plenty of cold water and a bunch of savoury herbs; let it gradua
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TO CURE TONGUES.
TO CURE TONGUES.
674. INGREDIENTS.—For a tongue of 7 lbs., 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1/2 oz. of black pepper, 4 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of juniper berries, 6 oz. of salt. Mode .—Rub the above ingredients well into the tongue, and let it remain in the pickle for 10 days or a fortnight; then drain it, tie it up in brown paper, and have it smoked for about 20 days over a wood fire; or it may be boiled out of this pickle. Time .—From 10 to 14 days to remain in the pickle; to be smoked 24 days. Average cost , for a medium-size
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II.
II.
675. INGREDIENTS.—9 lbs. of salt, 8 oz. of sugar, 9 oz. of powdered saltpetre. Mode .—Rub the above ingredients well into the tongues, and keep them in this curing mixture for 2 months, turning them every day. Drain them from the pickle, cover with brown paper, and have them smoked for about 3 weeks. Time .—The tongues to remain in pickle 2 months; to be smoked 3 weeks. Sufficient .—The above quantity of brine sufficient for 12 tongues, of 5 lbs. each. Seasonable at any time. [Illustration: BEEF
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TO DRESS TRIPE.
TO DRESS TRIPE.
677. INGREDIENTS.—Tripe, onion sauce, No. 484, milk and water. Mode .—Ascertain that the tripe is quite fresh, and have it cleaned and dressed. Cut away the coarsest fat, and boil it in equal proportions of milk and water for 3/4 hour. Should the tripe be entirely undressed, more than double that time should be allowed for it. Have ready some onion sauce made by recipe No. 4S4, dish the tripe, smother it with the sauce, and the remainder send to table in a tureen. Time .—1 hour: for undressed tr
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BEEF CARVING.
BEEF CARVING.
A boiled aitch-bone of beef is not a difficult joint to carve, as will be seen on reference to the accompanying engraving. By following with the knife the direction of the line from 1 to 2, nice slices will be easily cut. It may be necessary, as in a round of beef, to cut a thick slice off the outside before commencing to serve. [Illustration] There is but little description necessary to add, to show the carving of a boiled brisket of beef, beyond the engraving here inserted. The only point to b
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SHEEP AND LAMB.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SHEEP AND LAMB.
678. OF ALL WILD or DOMESTICATED ANIMALS, the sheep is, without exception, the most useful to man as a food, and the most necessary to his health and comfort; for it not only supplies him with the lightest and most nutritious of meats, but, in the absence of the cow, its udder yields him milk, cream, and a sound though inferior cheese; while from its fat he obtains light, and from its fleece broadcloth, kerseymere, blankets, gloves, and hose. Its bones when burnt make an animal charcoal—ivory bl
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LAMBS.
LAMBS.
698. THOUGH THE LAMBING SEASON IN THIS COUNTRY usually commences in March, under the artificial system, so much pursued now to please the appetite of luxury, lambs can be procured at all seasons. When, however, the sheep lambs in mid-winter, or the inclemency of the weather would endanger the lives of mother and young, if exposed to its influence, it is customary to rear the lambs within-doors, and under the shelter of stables or barns, where, foddered on soft hay, and part fed on cow's milk, th
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CHAPTER XV.
CHAPTER XV.
BAKED MINCED MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery). 703. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of any joint of cold roast mutton, 1 or 2 onions, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace or nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of gravy, mashed potatoes. Mode .—Mince an onion rather fine, and fry it a light-brown colour; add the herbs and mutton, both of which should be also finely minced and well mixed; season with pepper and salt, and a little pounded mace or nutmeg, and moisten with the above p
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BOILED BREAST OF MUTTON AND CAPER SAUCE.
BOILED BREAST OF MUTTON AND CAPER SAUCE.
704. INGREDIENTS.—Breast of mutton, bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced savoury herbs (put a large proportion of parsley), pepper and salt to taste. Mode .—Cut off the superfluous fat; bone it; sprinkle over a layer of bread crumbs, minced herbs, and seasoning; roll, and bind it up firmly. Boil gently for 2 hours, remove the tape, and serve with caper sauce, No. 382, a little of which should be poured over the meat. Time .—2 hours. Average cost , 6d. per lb. Sufficient for 4 or 6 persons. S
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BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.
BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.
705. INGREDIENTS.—Mutton, water, salt. Mode .—A. leg of mutton for boiling should not hang too long, as it will not look a good colour when dressed. Cut off the shank-bone, trim the knuckle, and wash and wipe it very clean; plunge it into sufficient boiling water to cover it; let it boil up, then draw the saucepan to the side of the fire, where it should remain till the finger can be borne in the water. Then place it sufficiently near the fire, that the water may gently simmer, and be very caref
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CHINA CHILO.
CHINA CHILO.
712. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of leg, loin, or neck of mutton, 2 onions, 2 lettuces, 1 pint of green peas, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 1/4 pint of water, 1/4 lb. of clarified butter; when liked, a little cayenne. Mode .—Mince the above quantity of undressed leg, loin, or neck of mutton, adding a little of the fat, also minced; put it into a stewpan with the remaining ingredients, previously shredding the lettuce and onion rather fine; closely cover the stewpan, after the ingred
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DORMERS.
DORMERS.
715. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of cold mutton, 2 oz. of beef suet, pepper and salt to taste, 3 oz. of boiled rice, 1 egg, bread crumbs, made gravy. Mode .—Chop the meat, suet, and rice finely; mix well together, and add a high seasoning of pepper and salt, and roll into sausages; cover them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot dripping of a nice brown. Serve in a dish with made gravy poured round them, and a little in a tureen. Time .—1/2 hour to fry the sausages. Average cost , exclusive of the
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II.
II.
717. INGREDIENTS.—Breast or scrag of mutton, flour, pepper and salt to taste, 1 large onion, 3 cloves, a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 blade of mace, carrots and turnips, sugar. Mode .—Cut the mutton into square pieces, and fry them a nice colour; then dredge over them a little flour and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Put all into a stewpan, and moisten with boiling water, adding the onion, stuck with 3 cloves, the mace, and herbs. Simmer gently till the meat is nearly done, skim off all the fat, a
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HASHED MUTTON.
HASHED MUTTON.
719. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold roast shoulder or leg of mutton, 6 whole peppers, 6 whole allspice, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 head of celery, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, flour. Mode .—Cut the meat in nice even slices from the bones, trimming off all superfluous fat and gristle; chop the bones and fragments of the joint, put them into a stewpan with the pepper, spice, herbs, and celery; cover with water, and simmer for 1 hour. Slice and fry the onion of a nice pale-brown colour, dredge i
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IRISH STEW.
IRISH STEW.
721. INGREDIENTS.—3 lbs. of the loin or neck of mutton, 5 lbs. of potatoes, 5 large onions, pepper and salt to taste, rather more than 1 pint of water. Mode .—Trim off some of the fat of the above quantity of loin or neck of mutton, and cut it into chops of a moderate thickness. Pare and halve the potatoes, and cut the onions into thick slices. Put a layer of potatoes at the bottom of a stewpan, then a layer of mutton and onions, and season with pepper and salt; proceed in this manner until the
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II.
II.
722. INGREDIENTS.—2 or 3 lbs. of the breast of mutton, 1-1/2 pint of water, salt and pepper to taste, 4 lbs. of potatoes, 4 large onions. Mode .—Put the mutton into a stewpan with the water and a little salt, and let it stew gently for an hour; cut the meat into small pieces, skim the fat from the gravy, and pare and slice the potatoes and onions. Put all the ingredients into the stewpan in layers, first a layer of vegetables, then one of meat, and sprinkle seasoning of pepper and salt between e
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ITALIAN MUTTON CUTLETS.
ITALIAN MUTTON CUTLETS.
723. INGREDIENTS.—About 3 lbs. of the neck of mutton, clarified butter, the yolk of 1 egg, 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of minced savoury herbs, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced shalot, 1 saltspoonful of finely-chopped lemon-peel; pepper, salt, and pounded mace to taste; flour, 1/2 pint of hot broth or water, 2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of soy, 2 teaspoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of port wine. Mode .—Cut the mutto
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ROAST HAUNCH OF MUTTON.
ROAST HAUNCH OF MUTTON.
[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.] 726. INGREDIENTS.—Haunch of mutton, a little salt, flour. Mode .—Let this joint hang as long as possible without becoming tainted, and while hanging dust flour over it, which keeps off the flies, and prevents the air from getting to it. If not well hung, the joint, when it comes to table, will neither do credit to the butcher or the cook, as it will not be tender. Wash the outside well, lest it should have a bad flavour from keeping; then flour it and put it dow
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ROAST LOIN OF MUTTON.
ROAST LOIN OF MUTTON.
728. INGREDIENTS.—Loin of mutton, a little salt. Mode .—Cut and trim off the superfluous fat, and see that the butcher joints the meat properly, as thereby much annoyance is saved to the carver, when it comes to table. Have ready a nice clear fire (it need not be a very wide large one), put down the meat, dredge with flour, and baste well until it is done. Make the gravy as for roast leg of mutton, and serve very hot. [Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.] Time .—A loin of mutton weighing 6 lbs., 1-1/2
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BOILED NECK OF MUTTON.
BOILED NECK OF MUTTON.
730. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of the middle, or best end of the neck of mutton; a little salt. Mode .—Trim off a portion of the fat, should there be too much, and if it is to look particularly nice, the chine-bone should be sawn down, the ribs stripped halfway down, and the ends of the bones chopped off; this is, however, not necessary. Put the meat into sufficient boiling water to cover it; when it boils, add a little salt and remove all the scum. Draw the saucepan to the side of the fire, and let t
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MUTTON PIE.
MUTTON PIE.
734. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of the neck or loin of mutton, weighed after being boned; 2 kidneys, pepper and salt to taste, 2 teacupfuls of gravy or water, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley; when liked, a little minced onion or shalot; puff crust. Mode .—Bone the mutton, and cut the meat into steaks all of the same thickness, and leave but very little fat. Cut up the kidneys, and arrange these with the meat neatly in a pie-dish; sprinkle over them the minced parsley and a seasoning of pepper and sa
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MUTTON PUDDING.
MUTTON PUDDING.
735. INGREDIENTS.—About 2 lbs. of the chump end of the loin of mutton, weighed after being boned; pepper and salt to taste, suet crust made with milk (see Pastry), in the proportion of 6 oz. of suet to each pound of flour; a very small quantity of minced onion (this may be omitted when the flavour is not liked). Mode .—Cut the meat into rather thin slices, and season them with pepper and salt; line the pudding-dish with crust; lay in the meat, and nearly, but do not quite, fill it up with water;
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ROAST NECK OF MUTTON.
ROAST NECK OF MUTTON.
[Illustration: NECK OF MUTTON 1-2. Best end . 2-3. Scrag .] 737. INGREDIENTS.—Neck of mutton; a little salt. Mode .—For roasting, choose the middle, or the best end, of the neck of mutton, and if there is a very large proportion of fat, trim off some of it, and save it for making into suet puddings, which will be found exceedingly good. Let the bones be cut short and see that it is properly jointed before it is laid down to the fire, as they will be more easily separated when they come to table.
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ROAST SHOULDER OF MUTTON.
ROAST SHOULDER OF MUTTON.
739. INGREDIENTS.—Shoulder of mutton; a little salt. Mode .—Put the joint down to a bright, clear fire; flour it well, and keep continually basting. About 1/4 hour before serving, draw it near the fire, that the outside may acquire a nice brown colour, but not sufficiently near to blacken the fat. Sprinkle a little fine salt over the meat, empty the dripping-pan of its contents, pour in a little boiling water slightly salted, and strain this over the joint. Onion sauce, or stewed Spanish onions,
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TO DRESS A SHEEP'S HEAD.
TO DRESS A SHEEP'S HEAD.
742. INGREDIENTS.—1 sheep's head, sufficient water to cover it, 3 carrots, 3 turnips, 2 or 3 parsnips, 3 onions, a small bunch of parsley, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 3 teaspoonfuls of salt, 1/4 lb. of Scotch oatmeal. Mode .—Clean the head well, and let it soak in warm water for 2 hours, to get rid of the blood; put it into a saucepan, with sufficient cold water to cover it, and when it boils, add the vegetables, peeled and sliced, and the remaining ingredients; before adding the oatmeal, mix it to
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BREAST OF LAMB AND GREEN PEAS.
BREAST OF LAMB AND GREEN PEAS.
744. INGREDIENTS.—1 breast of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1/4 pint of stock No. 105, 1 lemon, 1 onion, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, green peas. Mode .—Remove the skin from a breast of lamb, put it into a saucepan of boiling water, and let it simmer for 5 minutes. Take it out and lay it in cold water. Line the bottom of a stewpan with a few thin slices of bacon; lay the lamb on these; peel the lemon, cut it into slices, and put these on the meat, to keep it white and make it tender; cover with 1 or
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LAMB CHOPS.
LAMB CHOPS.
746. INGREDIENTS.—Loin of lamb, pepper and salt to taste. Mode .—Trim off the flap from a fine loin of lamb, aid cut it into chops about 3/4 inch in thickness. Have ready a bright clear fire; lay the chops on a gridiron, and broil them of a nice pale brown, turning them when required. Season them with pepper and salt; serve very hot and quickly, and garnish with crisped parsley, or place them on mashed potatoes. Asparagus, spinach, or peas are the favourite accompaniments to lamb chops. Time .—A
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LAMB'S FRY.
LAMB'S FRY.
748. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of lamb's fry, 3 pints of water, egg and bread crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste. Mode .—Boil the fry for 1/4 hour in the above proportion of water, take it out and dry it in a cloth; grate some bread down finely, mix with it a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a high seasoning of pepper and salt. Brush the fry lightly over with the yolk of an egg, sprinkle over the bread crumbs, and fry for 5 minutes. Serve very hot on a napkin in a dish
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HASHED LAMB AND BROILED BLADE-BONE.
HASHED LAMB AND BROILED BLADE-BONE.
749. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of a cold shoulder of lamb, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, about 1/2 pint of stock or gravy, 1 tablespoonful of shalot vinegar, 3 or 4 pickled gherkins. Mode .—Take the blade-bone from the shoulder, and cut the meat into collops as neatly as possible. Season the bone with pepper and salt, pour a little oiled butter over it, and place it in the oven to warm through. Put the stock into a stewpan, add the ketchup and shalot vinegar, and lay in the pieces of
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BOILED LEG OF LAMB A LA BECHAMEL.
BOILED LEG OF LAMB A LA BECHAMEL.
751. INGREDIENTS.—Leg of lamb, Béchamel sauce, No. 367. Mode .—Do not choose a very large joint, but one weighing about 5 lbs. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, into which plunge the lamb, and when it boils up again, draw it to the side of the fire, and let the water cool a little. Then stew very gently for about 1-1/4 hour, reckoning from the time that the water begins to simmer. Make some Béchamel by recipe No. 367, dish the lamb, pour the sauce over it, and garnish with tufts of boiled
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ROAST LEG OF LAMB.
ROAST LEG OF LAMB.
752. INGREDIENTS.—Lamb, a little salt. [Illustration: LEG OF LAMB.] Mode .—Place the joint at a good distance from the fire at first, and baste well the whole time it is cooking. When nearly done, draw it nearer the fire to acquire a nice brown colour. Sprinkle a little fine salt over the meat, empty the dripping-pan of its contents; pour in a little boiling water, and strain this over the meat. Serve with mint sauce and a fresh salad, and for vegetables send peas, spinach, or cauliflowers to ta
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BRAISED LOIN OF LAMB.
BRAISED LOIN OF LAMB.
[Illustration: LOIN OF LAMB.] 753. INGREDIENTS.—1 loin of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1 bunch of green onions, 5 or 6 young carrots, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 pint of stock, salt to taste. Mode .—Bone a loin of lamb, and line the bottom of a stewpan just capable of holding it, with a few thin slices of fat bacon; add the remaining ingredients, cover the meat with a few more slices of bacon, pour in the stock, and simmer very gently for 2 hours; take it up, dry it, st
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ROAST SHOULDER OF LAMB.
ROAST SHOULDER OF LAMB.
755. INGREDIENTS.—Lamb; a little salt. Mode .—Have ready a clear brisk fire, and put down the joint at a sufficient distance from it, that the fat may not burn. Keep constantly basting until done, and serve with a little gravy made in the dripping-pan, and send mint sauce to table with it. Peas, spinach, or cauliflowers are the usual vegetables served with lamb, and also a fresh salad. Time .—A shoulder of lamb rather more than 1 hour. Average cost , 10s. to 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 4 or 5 per
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SHOULDER OF LAMB STUFFED.
SHOULDER OF LAMB STUFFED.
756. INGREDIENTS.—Shoulder of lamb, forcemeat No. 417, trimmings of veal or beef, 2 onions, 1/2 head of celery, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, a few slices of fat bacon, 1 quart of stock No. 105. Mode .—Take the blade-bone out of a shoulder of lamb, fill up its place with forcemeat, and sew it up with coarse thread. Put it into a stewpan with a few slices of bacon under and over the lamb, and add the remaining ingredients. Stew very gently for rather more than 2 hours. Reduce the gravy, with which g
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MUTTON AND LAMB CARVING.
MUTTON AND LAMB CARVING.
[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.] 759. A deep cut should, in the first place, be made quite down to the bone, across the knuckle-end of the joint, along the line 1 to 2. This will let the gravy escape; and then it should be carved, in not too thick slices, along the whole length of the haunch, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3. [Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.] 760. This homely, but capital English joint, is almost invariably served at table as shown in the engraving. The carving of it is no
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LOIN OF MUTTON.
LOIN OF MUTTON.
[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.] 761. There is one point in connection with carving a loin of mutton which includes every other; that is, that the joint should be thoroughly well jointed by the butcher before it is cooked. This knack of jointing requires practice and the proper tools; and no one but the butcher is supposed to have these. If the bones be not well jointed, the carving of a loin of mutton is not a gracious business; whereas, if that has been attended to, it is an easy and untroubles
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SADDLE OF MUTTON.
SADDLE OF MUTTON.
[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.] 762. Although we have heard, at various intervals, growlings expressed at the inevitable "saddle of mutton" at the dinner-parties of our middle classes, yet we doubt whether any other joint is better liked, when it has been well hung and artistically cooked. There is a diversity of opinion respecting the mode of sending this joint to table; but it has only reference to whether or no there shall be any portion of the tail, or, if so, how many joints of the tail.
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SHOULDER OF MUTTON.
SHOULDER OF MUTTON.
[Illustration: SHOULDER OF MUTTON.] 763. This is a joint not difficult to carve. The knife should be drawn from the outer edge of the shoulder in the direction of the line from 1 to 2, until the bone of the shoulder is reached. As many slices as can be carved in this manner should be taken, and afterwards the meat lying on either side of the blade-bone should be served, by carving in the direction of 3 to 4 and 3 to 4. The uppermost side of the shoulder being now finished, the joint should be tu
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FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.
FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.
[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.] 764. We always think that a good and practised carver delights in the manipulation of this joint, for there is a little field for his judgment and dexterity which does not always occur. The separation of the shoulder from the breast is the first point to be attended to; this is done by passing the knife lightly round the dotted line, as shown by the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, so as to cut through the skin, and then, by raising with a little force the shoulde
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LEG OF LAMB, LOIN OF LAMB, SADDLE OF LAMB, SHOULDER OF LAMB,
LEG OF LAMB, LOIN OF LAMB, SADDLE OF LAMB, SHOULDER OF LAMB,
are carved in the same manner as the corresponding joints of mutton. ( See Nos. 760, 761, 762, 763.) [Illustration]...
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON HOG.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON HOG.
765. THE HOG belongs to the order Mammalia , the genus Sus scrofa , and the species Pachydermata , or thick-skinned; and its generic characters are, a small head, with long flexible snout truncated; 42 teeth, divided into 4 upper incisors, converging, 6 lower incisors, projecting, 2 upper and 2 lower canine, or tusks,—the former short, the latter projecting, formidable, and sharp, and 14 molars in each jaw; cloven feet furnished with 4 toes, and tail, small, short, and twisted; while, in some va
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II.
II.
( Another Way .) 798. INGREDIENTS.—Loin or fore-loin, of pork, egg and bread crumbs, salt and pepper to taste; to every tablespoonful of bread crumbs allow 1/2 teaspoonful of minced sage; clarified butter. Mode .—Cut the cutlets from a loin, or fore-loin, of pork; trim them the same as mutton cutlets, and scrape the top part of the bone. Brush them over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs, with which have been mixed minced sage and a seasoning of pepper and salt; drop a little clarified butter
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ROAST LEG OF PORK.
ROAST LEG OF PORK.
[Illustration: ROAST LEG OF PORK.] 800. INGREDIENTS.—Leg of pork, a little oil for stuffing. (See Recipe No. 504.) Mode .—Choose a small leg of pork, and score the skin across in narrow strips, about 1/4 inch apart. Cut a slit in the knuckle, loosen the skin, and fill it with a sage-and-onion stuffing, made by Recipe No. 504. Brush the joint over with a little salad-oil (this makes the crackling crisper, and a better colour), and put it down to a bright, clear fire, not too near, as that would c
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FRIED RASHERS OF BACON AND POACHED EGGS.
FRIED RASHERS OF BACON AND POACHED EGGS.
802. INGREDIENTS.—Bacon; eggs. Mode .—Cut the bacon into thin slices, trim away the rusty parts, and cut off the rind. Put it into a cold frying-pan, that is to say, do not place the pan on the fire before the bacon is in it. Turn it 2 or 3 times, and dish it on a very hot dish. Poach the eggs and slip them on to the bacon, without breaking the yolks, and serve quickly. Time .—3 or 4 minutes. Average cost , 10d. to 1s. per lb. for the primest parts. Sufficient .—Allow 6 eggs for 3 persons. Seaso
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BOILED BACON.
BOILED BACON.
804. INGREDIENTS.—Bacon; water. [Illustration: BOILED BACON.] Mode .—As bacon is frequently excessively salt, let it be soaked in warm water for an hour or two previous to dressing it; then pare off the rusty parts, and scrape the under-side and rind as clean as possible. Put it into a saucepan of cold water, let it come gradually to a boil, and as fast as the scum rises to the surface of the water, remove it. Let it simmer very gently until it is thoroughly done; then take it up, strip off the
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TO CURE BACON IN THE WILTSHIRE WAY.
TO CURE BACON IN THE WILTSHIRE WAY.
805. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of coarse sugar, 1-1/2 lb. of bay-salt, 6 oz. of saltpetre, 1 lb. of common salt. Mode .—Sprinkle each flitch with salt, and let the blood drain off for 24 hours; then pound and mix the above ingredients well together and rub it well into the meat, which should be turned every day for a month; then hang it to dry, and afterwards smoke it for 10 days. Time .—To remain in the pickle 1 month, to be smoked 10 days. Sufficient .—The above quantity of salt for 1 pig. HOW PI
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TO BOIL A HAM.
TO BOIL A HAM.
[Illustration: BOILED HAM.] 811. INGREDIENTS.—Ham, water, glaze or raspings. Mode .—In choosing a ham, ascertain that it is perfectly sweet, by running a sharp knife into it, close to the bone; and if, when the knife is withdrawn, it has an agreeable smell, the ham is good; if, on the contrary, the blade has a greasy appearance and offensive smell, the ham is bad. If it has been long hung, and is very dry and salt, let it remain in soak for 24 hours, changing the water frequently. This length of
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HOW TO BOIL A HAM TO GIVE IT AN EXCELLENT FLAVOUR.
HOW TO BOIL A HAM TO GIVE IT AN EXCELLENT FLAVOUR.
812. INGREDIENTS.—Vinegar and water, 2 heads of celery, 2 turnips, 3 onions, a large bunch of savoury herbs. Mode .—Prepare the ham as in the preceding recipe, and let it soak for a few hours in vinegar and water. Put it on in cold water, and when it boils, add the vegetables and herbs. Simmer very gently until tender, take it out, strip off the skin, cover with bread-raspings, and put a paper ruche or frill round the knuckle. Time .—A ham weighing 10 lbs., 4 hours. Average cost , 8d. to 10d. pe
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TO CURE SWEET HAMS IN THE WESTMORELAND WAY.
TO CURE SWEET HAMS IN THE WESTMORELAND WAY.
818. INGREDIENTS.—3 lbs. of common salt, 3 lbs. of coarse sugar, 1 lb. of bay-salt, 3 quarts of strong beer. Mode .—Before the hams are put into pickle, rub them the preceding day well with salt, and drain the brine well from them. Put the above ingredients into a saucepan, and boil for 1/4 hour; pour over the hams, and let them remain a month in the pickle. Rub and turn them every day, but do not take them out of the pickling-pan; and have them smoked for a month. Time .—To be pickled 1 month;
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TO CURE BACON OR HAMS IN THE DEVONSHIRE WAY.
TO CURE BACON OR HAMS IN THE DEVONSHIRE WAY.
821. INGREDIENTS.—To every 14 lbs. of meat, allow 2 oz. of saltpetre, 2 oz. of salt prunella, 1 lb. of common salt. For the pickle, 3 gallons of water, 5 lbs. of common salt, 7 lbs. of coarse sugar, 3 lbs. of bay-salt. Mode .—Weigh the sides, hams, and cheeks, and to every 14 lbs. allow the above proportion of saltpetre, salt prunella, and common salt. Pound and mix these together, and rub well into the meat; lay it in a stone trough or tub, rubbing it thoroughly, and turning it daily for 2 succ
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CURING OF HAMS AND BACON.
CURING OF HAMS AND BACON.
822. The carcass of the hog, after hanging over-night to cool, is laid on a strong bench or stool, and the head is separated from the body at the neck, close behind the ears; the feet and also the internal fat are removed. The carcass is next divided into two sides in the following manner:—The ribs are divided about an inch from the spine on each side, and the spine, with the ends of the ribs attached, together with the internal flesh between it and the kidneys, and also the flesh above it, thro
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TO MELT LARD.
TO MELT LARD.
825. Melt the inner fat of the pig, by putting it in a stone jar, and placing this in a saucepan of boiling water, previously stripping off the skin. Let it simmer gently over a bright fire, and as it melts, pour it carefully from the sediment. Put it into small jars or bladders for use, and keep it in a cool place. The flead or inside fat of the pig, before it is melted, makes exceedingly light crust, and is particularly wholesome. It may be preserved a length of time by salting it well, and oc
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BOILED LEG OF PORK.
BOILED LEG OF PORK.
826. INGREDIENTS.—Leg of pork; salt. Mode .—For boiling, choose a small, compact, well-filled leg, and rub it well with salt; let it remain in pickle for a week or ten days, turning and rubbing it every day. An hour before dressing it, put it into cold water for an hour, which improves the colour. If the pork is purchased ready salted, ascertain how long the meat has been in pickle, and soak it accordingly. Put it into a boiling-pot, with sufficient cold water to cover it; let it gradually come
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ROAST LOIN OF PORK.
ROAST LOIN OF PORK.
829. INGREDIENTS.—Pork; a little salt. [Illustration: FORE LOIN OF PORK.] [Illustration: HIND LOIN OF PORK.] Mode .—Score the skin in strips rather more than 1/4 inch apart, and place the joint at a good distance from the fire, on account of the crackling, which would harden before the meat would be heated through, were it placed too near. If very lean, it should be rubbed over with a little salad oil, and kept well basted all the time it is at the fire. Pork should be very thoroughly cooked, bu
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PIG'S PETTITOES.
PIG'S PETTITOES.
832. INGREDIENTS.—A thin slice of bacon, 1 onion, 1 blade of mace, 6 peppercorns, 3 or 4 sprigs of thyme, 1 pint of gravy, pepper and salt to taste, thickening of butter and flour. Mode .—Put the liver, heart, and pettitoes into a stewpan with the bacon, mace, peppercorns, thyme, onion, and gravy, and simmer these gently for 1/4 hour; then take out the heart and liver, and mince them very fine. Keep stewing the feet until quite tender, which will be in from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, reckoning from
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TO PICKLE PORK.
TO PICKLE PORK.
833. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of saltpetre; salt. Mode .—As pork does not keep long without being salted, cut it into pieces of a suitable size as soon as the pig is cold. Rub the pieces of pork well with salt, and put them into a pan with a sprinkling of it between each piece: as it melts on the top, strew on more. Lay a coarse cloth over the pan, a board over that, and a weight on the board, to keep the pork down in the brine. If excluded from the air, it will continue good for nearly 2 years. Ave
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TO SCALD A SUCKING-PIG.
TO SCALD A SUCKING-PIG.
840. Put the pig into cold water directly it is killed; let it remain for a few minutes, then immerse it in a large pan of boiling water for 2 minutes. Take it out, lay it on a table, and pull off the hair as quickly as possible. When the skin looks clean, make a slit down the belly, take out the entrails, well clean the nostrils and ears, wash the pig in cold water, and wipe it thoroughly dry. Take off the feet at the first joint, and loosen and leave sufficient skin to turn neatly over. If not
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PORK CARVING. SUCKING-PIG.
PORK CARVING. SUCKING-PIG.
[Illustration: SUCKING-PIG.] 842. A sucking-pig seems, at first sight, rather an elaborate dish, or rather animal, to carve; but by carefully mastering the details of the business, every difficulty will vanish; and if a partial failure be at first made, yet all embarrassment will quickly disappear on a second trial. A sucking-pig is usually sent to table in the manner shown in the engraving (and also in coloured plate S), and the first point to be attended to is to separate the shoulder from the
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HAM.
HAM.
[Illustration: HAM.] 843. In cutting a ham, the carver must be guided according as he desires to practise economy, or have, at once, fine slices out of the prime part. Under the first supposition, he will commence at the knuckle end, and cut off thin slices towards the thick part of the ham. To reach the choicer portion, the knife, which must be very sharp and thin, should be carried quite down to the bone, in the direction of the line 1 to 2. The slices should be thin and even, and always cut d
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LEG OF PORK.
LEG OF PORK.
[Illustration: LEG OF PORK.] 844. This joint, which is such a favourite one with many people, is easy to carve. The knife should be carried sharply down to the bone, clean through the crackling, in the direction of the line 1 to 2. Sago and onion and apple sauce are usually sent to table with this dish,—sometimes the leg of pork is stuffed,—and the guests should be asked if they will have either or both. A frequent plan, and we think a good one, is now pursued, of sending sage and onion to table
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CALF.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CALF.
845. ANY REMARKS MADE ON THE CALF OR THE LAMB must naturally be in a measure supplementary to the more copious observations made on the parent stock of either. As the calf, at least as far as it is identified with veal, is destined to die young,—to be, indeed, cut off in its comparative infancy,—it may, at first sight, appear of little or no consequence to inquire to what particular variety, or breed of the general stock, his sire or dam may belong. The great art, however, in the modern science
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CHAPTER XIX.
CHAPTER XIX.
BAKED VEAL (Cold Meat Cookery). 856. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of cold roast veal, a few slices of bacon, 1 pint of bread crumbs, 1/2 pint of good veal gravy, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 blade of pounded mace, cayenne and salt to taste, 4 eggs. Mode .—Mince finely the veal and bacon; add the bread crumbs, gravy, and seasoning, and stir these ingredients well together. Beat up the eggs thoroughly; add these, mix the whole well together, put into a dish, and bake from 3/4 to 1 hour. When li
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ROAST BREAST OF VEAL.
ROAST BREAST OF VEAL.
[Illustration: BREAST OF VEAL.] 857. INGREDIENTS.—Veal; a little flour. Mode .—Wash the veal, well wipe it, and dredge it with flour; put it down to a bright fire, not too near, as it should not be scorched. Baste it plentifully until done; dish it, pour over the meat some good melted butter, and send to table with it a piece of boiled bacon and a cut lemon. Time .—From 1-1/2 to 2 hours. Average cost , 8-1/2d. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from March to October....
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STEWED BREAST OF VEAL AND PEAS.
STEWED BREAST OF VEAL AND PEAS.
858. INGREDIENTS.—Breast of veal, 2 oz. of butter, a bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley; 2 blades of pounded mace, 2 cloves, 5 or 6 young onions, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 6 allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 teaspoonful of salt, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, green peas. Mode .—Cut the breast in half, after removing the bone underneath, and divide the meat
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BOILED CALF'S FEET AND PARSLEY AND BUTTER.
BOILED CALF'S FEET AND PARSLEY AND BUTTER.
860. INGREDIENTS.—2 calf's feet, 2 slices of bacon, 2 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, 4 cloves, 1 blade of mace, water, parsley and butter No. 493. Mode .—Procure 2 white calf's feet; bone them as far as the first joint, and put them into warm water to soak for 2 hours. Then put the bacon, butter, lemon-juice, onion, herbs, spices, and seasoning into a stewpan; lay in the feet, and pour in just sufficient water to
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VEAL A LA BOURGEOISE.
VEAL A LA BOURGEOISE.
( Excellent .) 869. INGREDIENTS.—2 to 3 lbs. of the loin or neck of veal, 10 or 12 young carrots, a bunch of green onions, 2 slices of lean bacon, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, a few new potatoes, 1 pint of green peas. Mode .—Cut the veal into cutlets, trim them, and put the trimmings into a stewpan with a little butter; lay in the cutlets and fry them a nice brown colour on both sides. Add the bacon, carrots, onions, spice, herbs, and seasoning; p
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STEWED FILLET OF VEAL.
STEWED FILLET OF VEAL.
873. INGREDIENTS.—A small fillet of veal, forcemeat No. 417, thickening of butter and flour, a few mushrooms, white pepper to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1/2 glass of sherry. Mode .—If the whole of the leg is purchased, take off the knuckle to stew, and also the square end, which will serve for cutlets or pies. Remove the bone, and fill the space with a forcemeat No. 417. Roll and skewer it up firmly; place a few skewers at the bottom of a stewpan to prevent
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CALF'S LIVER AND BACON.
CALF'S LIVER AND BACON.
881. INGREDIENTS.—2 or 3 lbs. of liver, bacon, pepper and salt to taste, a small piece of butter, flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, 1/4 pint of water. Mode .—Cut the liver in thin slices, and cut as many slices of bacon as there are of liver; fry the bacon first, and put that on a hot dish before the fire. Fry the liver in the fat which comes from the bacon, after seasoning it with pepper and salt and dredging over it a very little flour. Turn the liver occasionally to prevent its burning,
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TO RAGOUT A KNUCKLE OF VEAL.
TO RAGOUT A KNUCKLE OF VEAL.
884. INGREDIENTS.—Knuckle of veal, pepper and salt to taste, flour, 1 onion, 1 head of celery, or a little celery-seed, a faggot of savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, thickening of butter and flour, a few young carrots, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of tomato sauce, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry, the juice of 1/4 lemon. Mode .—Cut the meat from a knuckle of veal into neat slices, season with pepper and salt, and dredge them with flour. Fry them in a little butter of a pale brown
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STEWED KNUCKLE OF VEAL AND RICE.
STEWED KNUCKLE OF VEAL AND RICE.
885. INGREDIENTS.—Knuckle of veal, 1 onion, 2 blades of mace, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 lb. of rice. [Illustration: KNUCKLE OF VEAL.] Mode .—Have the knuckle cut small, or cut some cutlets from it, that it may be just large enough to be eaten the same day it is dressed, as cold boiled veal is not a particularly tempting dish. Break the shank-bone, wash it clean, and put the meat into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it. Let it gradually come to a boil, put in the salt, and remove the sc
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ROAST LOIN OF VEAL.
ROAST LOIN OF VEAL.
[Illustration: LOIN OF VEAL.] 886. INGREDIENTS.—Veal; melted butter. Mode .—Paper the kidney fat; roll in and skewer the flap, which makes the joint a good shape; dredge it well with flour, and put it down to a bright fire. Should the loin be very large, skewer the kidney back for a time to roast thoroughly. Keep it well basted, and a short time before serving, remove the paper from the kidney, and allow it to acquire a nice brown colour, but it should not be burnt. Have ready some melted butter
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MINCED VEAL.
MINCED VEAL.
( More Economical .) 890. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold roast fillet or loin of veal, rather more than 1 pint of water, 1 onion, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, salt and white pepper to taste, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 or 3 young carrots, a faggot of sweet herbs, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream or milk. Mode .—Take about 1 lb. of veal, and should there be any bones, dredge them with flour, and put them into a stewpan with the br
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BRAISED NECK OF VEAL.
BRAISED NECK OF VEAL.
893. INGREDIENTS.—The best end of the neck of veal (from 3 to 4 lbs.), bacon, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste; 1 onion, 2 carrots, a little celery (when this is not obtainable, use the seed), 1/2 glass of sherry, thickening of butter and flour, lemon-juice, 1 blade of pounded mace. Mode .—Prepare the bacon for larding, and roll it in minced parsley, salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg; lard the veal, put it into a stewpan with a few slices of lean bacon or
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VEAL PIE.
VEAL PIE.
897. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of veal cutlets, 1 or 2 slices of lean bacon or ham, pepper and salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, crust, 1 teacupful of gravy. Mode .—Cut the cutlets into square pieces, and season them with pepper, salt, and pounded mace; put them in a pie-dish with the savoury herbs sprinkled over, and 1 or 2 slices of lean bacon or ham placed at the top: if possible, this should be previously cooked, as undressed bacon makes the veal re
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VEAL CARVING. BREAST OF VEAL.
VEAL CARVING. BREAST OF VEAL.
[Illustration: BREAST OF VEAL.] 912. The carving of a breast of veal is not dissimilar to that of a fore-quarter of lamb, when the shoulder has been taken off. The breast of veal consists of two parts,—the rib-bones and the gristly brisket. These two parts should first be separated by sharply passing the knife in the direction of the lines 1, 2; when they are entirely divided, the rib-bones should be carved in the direction of the lines 5 to 6; and the brisket can be helped by cutting pieces in
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FILLET OF VEAL.
FILLET OF VEAL.
[Illustration: FILLET OF VEAL.] 914. The carving of this joint is similar to that of a round of beef. Slices, not too thick, in the direction of the line 1 to 2 are cut; and the only point to be careful about is, that the veal be evenly carved. Between the flap and the meat the stuffing is inserted, and a small portion of this should be served to every guest. The persons whom the host wishes most to honour should be asked if they like the delicious brown outside slice, as this, by many, is excee
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KNUCKLE OF VEAL.
KNUCKLE OF VEAL.
[Illustration: KNUCKLE OF VEAL.] 915. The engraving, showing the dotted line from 1 to 2, sufficiently indicates the direction which should be given to the knife in carving this dish. The best slices are those from the thickest part of the knuckle, that is, outside the line 1 to 2....
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LOIN OF VEAL.
LOIN OF VEAL.
[Illustration: LOIN OF VEAL.] 916. As is the case with a loin of mutton, the careful jointing of a loin of veal is more than half the battle in carving it. If the butcher be negligent in this matter, he should be admonished; for there is nothing more annoying or irritating to an inexperienced carver than to be obliged to turn his knife in all directions to find the exact place where it should be inserted in order to divide the bones. When the jointing is properly performed, there is little diffi
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BIRDS.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BIRDS.
  "Birds, the free tenants of land, air, and ocean,   Their forms all symmetry, their motions grace;   In plumage delicate and beautiful;   Thick without burthen, close as fishes' scales,   Or loose as full-blown poppies to the breeze." The Pelican Island . 917. THE DIVISIONS OF BIRDS are founded principally on their habits of life, and the natural resemblance which their external parts, especially their bills, bear to each other. According to Mr. Vigors, there are five orders, each of which occ
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CHAPTER XXI.
CHAPTER XXI.
CHICKEN CUTLETS (an Entree). 926. INGREDIENTS.—2 chickens; seasoning to taste of salt, white pepper, and cayenne; 2 blades of pounded mace, egg and bread crumbs, clarified butter, 1 strip of lemon-rind, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, thickening of butter and flour, 1 egg. Mode .—Remove the breast and leg bones of the chickens; cut the meat into neat pieces after having skinned it, and season the cutlets with pepper, salt, pounded mace, and cayenne. Put the bones, trimm
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ROAST LARKS.
ROAST LARKS.
972. INGREDIENTS.—Larks, egg and bread crumbs, fresh butter. Mode .—These birds are by many persons esteemed a great delicacy, and may be either roasted or broiled. Pick, gut, and clean them; when they are trussed, brush them over with the yolk of an egg; sprinkle with bread crumbs, and roast them before a quick fire; baste them continually with fresh butter, and keep sprinkling with the bread crumbs until the birds are well covered. Dish them on bread crumbs fried in clarified butter, and garni
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BROILED PIGEONS.
BROILED PIGEONS.
973. INGREDIENTS.—Pigeons, 3 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste. Mode .—Take care that the pigeons are quite fresh, and carefully pluck, draw, and wash them; split the backs, rub the birds over with butter, season them with pepper and salt, and broil them over a moderate fire for 1/4 hour or 20 minutes. Serve very hot, with either mushroom-sauce or a good gravy. Pigeons may also be plainly boiled, and served with parsley and butter; they should be trussed like boiled fowls, and take from 1/
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BOILED RABBIT.
BOILED RABBIT.
[Illustration: BOILED RABBIT.] 977. INGREDIENTS.—Rabbit; water. Mode .—For boiling, choose rabbits with smooth and sharp claws, as that denotes they are young: should these be blunt and rugged, the ears dry and tough, the animal is old. After emptying and skinning it, wash it well in cold water, and let it soak for about 1/4 hour in warm water, to draw out the blood. Bring the head round to the side, and fasten it there by means of a skewer run through that and the body. Put the rabbit into suff
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RABBIT PIE.
RABBIT PIE.
981. INGREDIENTS.—1 rabbit, a few slices of ham, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, a few forcemeat balls, 3 hard-boiled eggs, 1/2 pint of gravy, puff crust. Mode .—Cut up the rabbit (which should be young), remove the breastbone, and bone the legs. Put the rabbit, slices of ham, forcemeat balls, and hard eggs, by turns, in layers, and season each layer with pepper, salt, pounded mace, and grated nutmeg. Pour in about 1/2 pint of water, co
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TO DRESS WHEATEARS.
TO DRESS WHEATEARS.
996. INGREDIENTS.—Wheatears; fresh butter. Mode .—After the birds are picked, gutted, and cleaned, truss them like larks, put them down to a quick fire, and baste them well with fresh butter. When done, which will be in about 20 minutes, dish them on fried bread crumbs, and garnish the dish with slices of lemon. Time .—20 minutes. Seasonable from July to October. THE WHEATEAR.—The wheatear is an annual visitor of England: it arrives about the middle of March and leaves in September. The females
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POULTRY CARVING. ROAST DUCK.
POULTRY CARVING. ROAST DUCK.
[Illustration: ROAST DUCK.] 999. No dishes require so much knowledge and skill in their carving as do game and poultry; for it is necessary to be well acquainted with the anatomy of the bird and animal in order to place the knife at exactly the proper point. A tough fowl and an old goose are sad triers of a carver's powers and temper, and, indeed, sometimes of the good humour of those in the neighbourhood of the carver; for a sudden tilt of the dish may eventuate in the placing a quantity of the
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ROAST FOWL.
ROAST FOWL.
[Illustration: ROAST FOWL.] 1001. Generally speaking, it is not necessary so completely to cut up a fowl as we have described in the preceding paragraphs, unless, indeed, a large family party is assembled, and there are a number of "little mouths" to be filled, or some other such circumstances prevail. A roast fowl is carved in the same manner as a boiled fowl, No. 1000; viz., by cutting along the line from. 1 to 2, and then round the leg between it and the wing. The markings and detached pieces
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PIGEON.
PIGEON.
[Illustration: PIGEON.] 1003. A very straightforward plan is adopted in carving a pigeon: the knife is carried sharply in the direction of the line as shown from 1 to 2, entirely through the bird, cutting it into two precisely equal and similar parts. If it is necessary to make three pieces of it, a small wing should be cut off with the leg on either side, thus serving two guests; and, by this means, there will be sufficient meat left on the breast to send to the third guest....
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RABBITS.
RABBITS.
[Illustration: BOILED RABBIT.] 1004. In carving a boiled rabbit, let the knife be drawn on each side of the backbone, the whole length of the rabbit, as shown by the dotted line 3 to 4: thus the rabbit will be in three parts. Now let the back be divided into two equal parts in the direction of the line from 1 to 2; then let the leg be taken off, as shown by the line 5 to 6, and the shoulder, as shown by the line 7 to 8. This, in our opinion, is the best plan to carve a rabbit, although there are
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ROAST TURKEY.
ROAST TURKEY.
[Illustration: ROAST TURKEY.] 1005. A noble dish is a turkey, roast or boiled. A Christmas dinner, with the middle classes of this empire, would scarcely be a Christmas dinner without its turkey; and we can hardly imagine an object of greater envy than is presented by a respected portly pater-familias carving, at the season devoted to good cheer and genial charity, his own fat turkey, and carving it well. The only art consists, as in the carving of a goose, in getting from the breast as many fin
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON GAME.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON GAME.
1006. THE COMMON LAW OF ENGLAND has a maxim, that goods, in which no person can claim any property, belong, by his or her prerogative, to the king or queen. Accordingly, those animals, those ferae naturae , which come under the denomination of game, are, in our laws, styled his or her majesty's, and may therefore, as a matter of course, be granted by the sovereign to another; in consequence of which another may prescribe to possess the same within a certain precinct or lordship. From this circum
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CHAPTER XXIII. ROAST BLACK-COCK.
CHAPTER XXIII. ROAST BLACK-COCK.
1019. INGREDIENTS.—Black-cock, butter, toast. [Illustration: ROAST BLACK-COCK.] Mode .—Let these birds hang for a few days, or they will be tough and tasteless, if not well kept. Pluck and draw them, and wipe the insides and outsides with a damp cloth, as washing spoils the flavour. Cut off the heads, and truss them, the same as a roast fowl, cutting off the toes, and scalding and peeling the feet. Trussing them with the head on, as shown in the engraving, is still practised by many cooks, but t
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RAGOUT OF WILD DUCK.
RAGOUT OF WILD DUCK.
1021. INGREDIENTS.—2 wild ducks, 4 shalots, 1 pint of stock No. 105, 1 glass of port wine, 1 oz. of butter, a little flour, the juice of 1/2 lemon, cayenne and salt to taste. Mode .—Ducks that have been dressed and left from the preceding day will answer for this dish. Cut them into joints, reserve the legs, wings, and breasts until wanted; put the trimmings into a stewpan with the shalots and stock, and let them simmer for about 1/2 hour, and strain the gravy. Put the butter into a stewpan; whe
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ROAST WILD DUCK.
ROAST WILD DUCK.
1022. INGREDIENTS.—Wild duck, flour, butter. [Illustration: ROAST WILD DUCK.] Mode .—Carefully pluck and draw them; Cut off the heads close to the necks, leaving sufficient skin to turn over, and do not cut off the feet; some twist each leg at the knuckle, and rest the claws on each side of the breast; others truss them as shown in our Illustration. Roast the birds before a quick fire, and, when they are first put down, let them remain for 5 minutes without basting (this will keep the gravy in);
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GROUSE PIE.
GROUSE PIE.
1024. INGREDIENTS.—Grouse; cayenne, salt, and pepper to taste; 1 lb. of rump-steak, 1/2 pint of well-seasoned broth, puff paste. Mode .—Line the bottom of a pie-dish with the rump-steak cut into neat pieces, and, should the grouse be large, cut them into joints; but, if small, they may be laid in the pie whole; season highly with salt, cayenne, and black pepper; pour in the broth, and cover with a puff paste; brush the crust over with the yolk of an egg, and bake from 3/4 to 1 hour. If the grous
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ROAST GROUSE.
ROAST GROUSE.
[Illustration: ROAST GROUSE.] 1025. INGREDIENTS.—Grouse, butter, a thick slice of toasted bread. Mode .—Let the birds hang as long as possible; pluck and draw them; wipe, but do not wash them, inside and out, and truss them without the head, the same as for a roast fowl. Many persons still continue to truss them with the head under the wing, but the former is now considered the most approved method. Put them down to a sharp clear fire; keep them well basted the whole of the time they are cooking
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HASHED HARE.
HASHED HARE.
1030. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold roast hare, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 or 3 allspice, pepper and salt to taste, 1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of port wine, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup. Mode .—Cut the cold hare into neat slices, and put the head, bones, and trimmings into a stewpan, with 3/4 pint of water; add the mace, allspice, seasoning, onion, and herbs, and stew for nearly an hour, and strain the gravy; thicken it with but
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JUGGED HARE.
JUGGED HARE.
( Very Good .) 1031. INGREDIENTS.—1 hare, 1-1/2 lb. of gravy beef, 1/2 lb. of butter, 1 onion, 1 lemon, 6 cloves; pepper, cayenne, and salt to taste; 1/2 pint of port wine. Mode .—Skin, paunch, and wash the hare, cut it into pieces, dredge them with flour, and fry in boiling butter. Have ready 1-1/2 pint of gravy, made from the above proportion of beef, and thickened with a little flour. Put this into a jar; add the pieces of fried hare, an onion stuck with six cloves, a lemon peeled and cut in
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II.
II.
( A Quicker and more Economical Way .) 1032. INGREDIENTS.—1 hare, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 onions, each stuck with 3 cloves, 6 whole allspice, 1/2 teaspoonful of black pepper, a strip of lemon-peel, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 1/4 pint of port wine. Mode. —Wash the hare nicely, cut it up into joints (not too large), and flour and brown them as in the preceding recipe; then put them into a stewpan with the herbs, onions, cloves, allspice, pepper, and lem
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ROAST LANDRAIL, OR CORN-CRAKE.
ROAST LANDRAIL, OR CORN-CRAKE.
1033. INGREDIENTS.—3 or 4 birds, butter, fried bread crumbs. [Illustration: LANDRAILS.] Mode .—Pluck and draw the birds, wipe them inside and out with damp cloths, and truss them in the following manner:—Bring the head round under the wing, and the thighs close to the sides; pass a skewer through them and the body, and keep the legs straight. Roast them before a clear fire, keep them well basted, and serve on fried bread crumbs, with a tureen of brown gravy. When liked, bread-sauce may also be s
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PARTRIDGE PIE.
PARTRIDGE PIE.
1036. INGREDIENTS.—3 partridges, pepper and salt to taste, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley (when obtainable, a few mushrooms), 3/4 lb. of veal cutlet, a slice of ham, 1/2 pint of stock, puff paste. Mode .—Line a pie-dish with a veal cutlet; over that place a slice of ham and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Pluck, draw, and wipe the partridges; cut off the legs at the first joint, and season them inside with pepper, salt, minced parsley, and a small piece of butter; place them in the dish, and po
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POTTED PARTRIDGE.
POTTED PARTRIDGE.
1037. INGREDIENTS.—Partridges; seasoning to taste of mace, allspice white pepper, and salt; butter, coarse paste. Mode .—Pluck and draw the birds, and wipe them inside with a damp cloth. Pound well some mace, allspice, white pepper, and salt; mix together, and rub every part of the partridges with this. Pack the birds as closely as possible in a baking-pan, with plenty of butter over them, and cover with a coarse flour and water crust. Tie a paper over this, and bake for rather more than 1-1/2 h
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ROAST PARTRIDGE.
ROAST PARTRIDGE.
1039. INGREDIENTS.—Partridge; butter. Choosing and Trussing .—Choose young birds, with dark-coloured bills and yellowish legs, and let them hang a few days, or there will be no flavour to the flesh, nor will it be tender. The time they should be kept, entirely depends on the taste of those for whom they are intended, as what some persons would consider delicious, would be to others disgusting and offensive. They may be trussed with or without the head, the latter mode being now considered the mo
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ROAST PHEASANT.
ROAST PHEASANT.
1041. INGREDIENTS.—Pheasant, flour, butter. Choosing and Trussing .—Old pheasants may be known by the length and sharpness of their spurs; in young ones they are short and blunt. The cock bird is generally reckoned the best, except when the hen is with egg. They should hang some time before they are dressed, as, if they are cooked fresh, the flesh will be exceedingly dry and tasteless. After the bird is plucked and drawn, wipe the inside with a damp cloth, and truss it in the same manner as part
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ROAST HAUNCH OF VENISON.
ROAST HAUNCH OF VENISON.
1049. INGREDIENTS.—Venison, coarse flour-and-water paste, a little flour. Mode .—Choose a haunch with clear, bright, and thick fat, and the cleft of the hoof smooth and close; the greater quantity of fat there is, the better quality will the meat be. As many people object to venison when it has too much haut goût , ascertain how long it has been kept, by running a sharp skewer into the meat close to the bone; when this is withdrawn, its sweetness can be judged of. With care and attention, it wil
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GAME CARVING. BLACKCOCK.
GAME CARVING. BLACKCOCK.
[Illustration: BLACKCOCK.] 1054. Skilful carving of game undoubtedly adds to the pleasure of the guests at a dinner-table; for game seems pre-eminently to be composed of such delicate limbs and tender flesh that an inapt practitioner appears to more disadvantage when mauling these pretty and favourite dishes, than larger and more robust pièces de résistance . As described at recipe No. 1019, this bird is variously served with or without the head on; and although we do not personally object to th
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ROAST HARE.
ROAST HARE.
[Illustration: ROAST HARE.] 1056. The "Grand Carver" of olden times, a functionary of no ordinary dignity, was pleased when he had a hare to manipulate, for his skill and grace had an opportunity of display. Diners à la Russe may possibly, erewhile, save modern gentlemen the necessity of learning the art which was in auld lang syne one of the necessary accomplishments of the youthful squire; but, until side-tables become universal, or till we see the office of "grand carver" once more instituted
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PARTRIDGES.
PARTRIDGES.
[Illustration: ROAST PARTRIDGES.] 1057. There are several ways of carving this most familiar game bird. The more usual and summary mode is to carry the knife sharply along the top of the breastbone of the bird, and cut it quite through, thus dividing it into two precisely equal and similar parts, in the same manner as carving a pigeon, No. 1003. Another plan is to cut it into three pieces; viz., by severing a small wing and leg on either side from the body, by following the line 1 to 2 in the up
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GROUSE.
GROUSE.
[Illustration] 1058. GROUSE may be carved in the way first described in carving partridge. The backbone of the grouse is highly esteemed by many, and this part of many game birds is considered the finest flavoured....
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PHEASANT.
PHEASANT.
[Illustration: ROAST PHEASANT.] 1059. Fixing the fork in the breast, let the carver cut slices from it in the direction of the lines from 2 to 1: these are the prime pieces. If there be more guests to satisfy than these slices will serve, then let the legs and wings be disengaged in the same manner as described in carving boiled fowl, No. 1000, the point where the wing joins the neckbone being carefully found. The merrythought will come off in the same way as that of a fowl. The most valued part
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SNIPE.
SNIPE.
[Illustration: SNIPE.] 1060. One of these small but delicious birds may be given, whole, to a gentleman; but, in helping a lady, it will be better to cut them quite through the centre, from 1 to 2, completely dividing them into equal and like portions, and put only one half on the plate....
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HAUNCH OF VENISON.
HAUNCH OF VENISON.
[Illustration: HAUNCH OF VENISON.] 1061. Here is a grand dish for a knight of the carving-knife to exercise his skill upon, and, what will be pleasant for many to know, there is but little difficulty in the performance. An incision being made completely down to the bone, in the direction of the line 1 to 2, the gravy will then be able easily to flow; when slices, not too thick, should be cut along the haunch, as indicated by the line 4 to 3; that end of the joint marked 3 having been turned towa
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LANDRAIL.
LANDRAIL.
1063. LANDRAIL, being trussed like Snipe, with the exception of its being drawn, may be carved in the same manner.—See No. 1060....
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PTARMIGAN.
PTARMIGAN.
1064. PTARMIGAN, being of much the same size, and trussed in the same manner, as the red-bird, may be carved in the manner described in Partridge and Grouse carving, Nos. 1057 and 1058....
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QUAILS.
QUAILS.
1065. QUAILS, being trussed and served like Woodcock, may be similarly carved.—See No. 1062....
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PLOVERS.
PLOVERS.
1066. PLOVERS may be carved like Quails or Woodcock, being trussed and served in the same way as those birds.—See No. 1055....
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TEAL.
TEAL.
1067. TEAL, being of the same character as Widgeon and Wild Duck, may be treated, in carving, in the same style....
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WIDGEON.
WIDGEON.
1068. WIDGEON may be carved in the same way as described in regard to Wild Duck, at No. 1055. [Illustration] [Illustration]...
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON VEGETABLES.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON VEGETABLES.
    "Strange there should be found   Who, self-imprison'd in their proud saloons,   Renounce the odours of the open field   For the unscented fictions of the loom;   Who, satisfied with only pencilled scenes,   Prefer to the performance of a God,   Th' inferior wonders of an artist's hand!   Lovely, indeed, the mimic works of art,   But Nature's works far lovelier."—COWPER. 1069. "THE ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE KINGDOMS," says Hogg, in his Natural History of the Vegetable Kingdom, "may be aptly compar
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CHAPTER XXV. BOILED ARTICHOKES.
CHAPTER XXV. BOILED ARTICHOKES.
1080. INGREDIENTS.—To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a piece of soda the size of a shilling; artichokes. [Illustration: ARTICHOKES.] Mode .—Wash the artichokes well in several waters; see that no insects remain about them, and trim away the leaves at the bottom. Cut off the stems and put them into boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportion. Keep the saucepan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender; ascertain when they
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A FRENCH MODE OF COOKING ARTICHOKES.
A FRENCH MODE OF COOKING ARTICHOKES.
1082. INGREDIENTS.—5 or 6 artichokes; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2 oz. of butter. Mode .—Cut the ends of the leaves, as also the stems; put the artichokes into boiling water, with the above proportion of salt, pepper, herbs, and butter; let them boil quickly until tender, keeping the lid of the saucepan off, and when the leaves come out easily, they are cooked enough. To keep them a beautiful green, put a
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ARTICHOKES A L'ITALIENNE.
ARTICHOKES A L'ITALIENNE.
1083. INGREDIENTS.—4 or 6 artichokes, salt and butter, about 1/2 pint of good gravy. Mode .—Trim and cut the artichokes into quarters, and boil them until tender in water mixed with a little salt and butter. When done, drain them well, and lay them all round the dish, with the leaves outside. Have ready some good gravy, highly flavoured with mushrooms; reduce it until quite thick, and pour it round the artichokes, and serve. Time .—20 to 25 minutes to boil the artichokes. Sufficient for one side
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JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES WITH WHITE SAUCE.
JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES WITH WHITE SAUCE.
(Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course as a Side-dish.) 1086. INGREDIENTS.—12 to 15 artichokes, 12 to 15 Brussels sprouts, 1/2 pint of white sauce, No. 538. Mode .—Peel and cut the artichokes in the shape of a pear; cut a piece off the bottom of each, that they may stand upright in the dish, and boil them in salt and water until tender. Have ready 1/2 pint of white sauce, made by recipe No. 538; dish the artichokes, pour over them the sauce, and place between each a fine Brussels spr
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ASPARAGUS PUDDING.
ASPARAGUS PUDDING.
(A delicious Dish, to be served with the Second Course.) 1089. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of asparagus peas, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of very finely minced ham, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, milk. Mode .—Cut up the nice green tender parts of asparagus, about the size of peas; put them into a basin with the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the flour, ham, butter, pepper, and salt. Mix all these ingredients well together, and moisten with sufficient milk to
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BOILED FRENCH BEANS.
BOILED FRENCH BEANS.
1090. INGREDIENTS.—To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a very small piece of soda. [Illustration: Scarlet Runner.] Mode .—This vegetable should always be eaten young, as, when allowed to grow too long, it tastes stringy and tough when cooked. Cut off the heads and tails, and a thin strip on each side of the beans, to remove the strings. Then divide each bean into 4 or 6 pieces, according to size, cutting them lengthways in a slanting direction, and, as they are cut,
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FRENCH MODE OF COOKING FRENCH BEANS.
FRENCH MODE OF COOKING FRENCH BEANS.
1091. INGREDIENTS.—A quart of French beans, 3 oz. of fresh butter, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Cut and boil the beans by the preceding recipe, and when tender, put them into a stewpan, and shake over the fire, to dry away the moisture from the beans. When quite dry and hot, add the butter, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice; keep moving the stewpan, without using a spoon, as that would break the beans; and when the butter is melted, and all is thoroughly hot, serve. If th
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BOILED BROAD OR WINDSOR BEANS.
BOILED BROAD OR WINDSOR BEANS.
1092. INGREDIENTS.—To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; beans. [Illustration: BROAD BEAN.] Mode .—This is a favourite vegetable with many persons, but to be nice, should be young and freshly gathered. After shelling the beans, put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender. Drain them well in a colander; dish, and serve with them separately a tureen of parsley and butter. Boiled bacon should always accompany this
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CAULIFLOWERS A LA SAUCE BLANCHE.
CAULIFLOWERS A LA SAUCE BLANCHE.
(Entremets, or Side-dish, to be served with the Second Course.) 1105. INGREDIENTS.—3 cauliflowers, 1/2 pint of sauce blanche, or French melted butter, No. 378; 3 oz. of butter; salt and water. Mode .—Cleanse the cauliflowers as in the preceding recipe, and cut the stalks off flat at the bottom; boil them until tender in salt and water, to which the above proportion of butter has been added, and be careful to take them up the moment they are done, or they will break, and the appearance of the dis
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CELERY.
CELERY.
[Illustration: CELERY IN GLASS.] 1107. With a good heart, and nicely blanched, this vegetable is generally eaten raw, and is usually served with the cheese. Let the roots be washed free from dirt, all the decayed and outside leaves being cut off, preserving as much of the stalk as possible, and all specks or blemishes being carefully removed. Should the celery be large, divide it lengthwise into quarters, and place it, root downwards, in a celery-glass, which should be rather more than half fill
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STEWED CELERY A LA CREME.
STEWED CELERY A LA CREME.
1108. INGREDIENTS.—6 heads of celery; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1/3 pint of cream. Mode .—Wash the celery thoroughly; trim, and boil it in salt and water until tender. Put the cream and pounded mace into a stewpan; shake it over the fire until the cream thickens, dish the celery, pour over the sauce, and serve. Time .—Large heads of celery, 25 minutes; small ones, 15 to 20 minutes. Average cost . 2d. per head. Sufficient for 5 or 6
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TO DRESS CUCUMBERS.
TO DRESS CUCUMBERS.
1111. INGREDIENTS.—3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste; cucumber. Mode .—Pare the cucumber, cut it equally into very thin slices, and commence cutting from the thick end ; if commenced at the stalk, the cucumber will most likely have an exceedingly bitter taste, far from agreeable. Put the slices into a dish, sprinkle over salt and pepper, and pour over oil and vinegar in the above proportion; turn the cucumber about, and it is ready to serve. Thi
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FRIED CUCUMBERS.
FRIED CUCUMBERS.
1113. INGREDIENTS.—2 or 3 cucumbers, pepper and salt to taste, flour, oil or butter. Mode .—Pare the cucumbers and cut them into slices of an equal thickness, commencing to slice from the thick, and not the stalk end of the cucumber. Wipe the slices dry with a cloth, dredge them with flour, and put them into a pan of boiling oil or butter; Keep turning them about until brown; lift them out of the pan, let them drain, and serve, piled lightly in a dish. These will be found a great improvement to
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ENDIVE A LA FRANCAISE.
ENDIVE A LA FRANCAISE.
1118. INGREDIENTS.—6 heads of endive, 1 pint of broth, 3 oz. of fresh butter; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste. Mode .—Wash and boil the endive as in the preceding recipe; chop it rather fine, and put into a stewpan with the broth; boil over a brisk fire until the sauce is all reduced; then put in the butter, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg (the latter must be very sparingly used); mix all well together, bring it to the boiling point, and serve very hot. Time ,—10 minutes to boil, 5 minu
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HORSERADISH.
HORSERADISH.
1122. This root, scraped, is always served with hot roast beef, and is used for garnishing many kinds of boiled fish. Let the horseradish remain in cold water for an hour; wash it well, and with a sharp knife scrape it into very thin shreds, commencing from the thick end of the root. Arrange some of it lightly in a small glass dish, and the remainder use for garnishing the joint: it should be placed in tufts round the border of the dish, with 1 or 2 bunches on the meat. Average cost , 2d. per st
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BAKED MUSHROOMS.
BAKED MUSHROOMS.
(A Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish.) 1124. INGREDIENTS.—16 to 20 mushroom-flaps, butter, pepper to taste. Mode .—For this mode of cooking, the mushroom flaps are better than the buttons, and should not be too large. Cut off a portion of the stalk, peel the top, and wipe the mushrooms carefully with a piece of flannel and a little fine salt. Put them into a tin baking-dish, with a very small piece of butter placed on each mushroom; sprinkle over a little pepper, and let them bake for about 20
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A GERMAN METHOD OF COOKING POTATOES.
A GERMAN METHOD OF COOKING POTATOES.
1143. INGREDIENTS.—8 to 10 middling-sized potatoes, 3 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/2 pint of broth, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Mode .—Put the butter and flour into a stewpan; stir over the fire until the butter is of a nice brown colour, and add the broth and vinegar; peel and cut the potatoes into long thin slices, lay them in the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender, which will be in from 10 to 15 minutes, and serve very hot. A laurel-leaf simmered with the potatoes
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MASHED POTATOES.
MASHED POTATOES.
1145. INGREDIENTS.—Potatoes; to every lb. of mashed potatoes allow 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, salt to taste. Mode .—Boil the potatoes in their skins; when done, drain them, and let them get thoroughly dry by the side of the fire; then peel them, and, as they are peeled, put them into a clean saucepan, and with a large fork beat them to a light paste; add butter, milk, and salt in the above proportion, and stir all the ingredients well over the fire. When thoroughly hot, dish them
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BAKED TOMATOES.
BAKED TOMATOES.
( Excellent .) 1158. INGREDIENTS.—8 or 10 tomatoes, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, bread crumbs. Mode .—Take off the stalks from the tomatoes; cut them into thick slices, and put them into a deep baking-dish; add a plentiful seasoning of pepper and salt, and butter in the above proportion; cover the whole with bread crumbs; drop over these a little clarified butter; bake in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, and serve very hot. This vegetable, dressed as above, is an exceed
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FRIED VEGETABLE MARROW.
FRIED VEGETABLE MARROW.
1171. INGREDIENTS.—3 medium-sized vegetable marrows, egg and bread crumbs, hot lard. Mode .—Peel, and boil the marrows until tender in salt and water; then drain them and cut them in quarters, and take out the seeds. When thoroughly drained, brush the marrows over with egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs; have ready some hot lard, fry the marrow in this, and, when of a nice brown, dish; sprinkle over a little salt and pepper, and serve. Time .—About 1/2 hour to boil the marrow, 7 minutes to fry
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.
1175. PUDDINGS AND PASTRY, familiar as they may be, and unimportant as they may be held in the estimation of some, are yet intimately connected with the development of agricultural resources in reference to the cereal grasses. When they began to be made is uncertain; but we may safely presume, that a simple form of pudding was amongst the first dishes made after discovering a mode of grinding wheat into flour. Traditional history enables us to trace man back to the time of the Deluge. After that
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DIRECTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE MAKING OF PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.
DIRECTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE MAKING OF PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.
1180. A few general remarks respecting the various ingredients of which puddings and pastry are composed, may be acceptable as preliminary to the recipes in this department of Household Management. 1181. Flour should be of the best quality, and perfectly dry, and sifted before being used; if in the least damp, the paste made from it will certainly be heavy. 1182. Butter , unless fresh is used, should be washed from the salt, and well squeezed and wrung in a cloth, to get out all the water and bu
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CHAPTER XXVII. VERY GOOD PUFF-PASTE.
CHAPTER XXVII. VERY GOOD PUFF-PASTE.
1205. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of flour allow 1 lb. of butter, and not quite 1/2 pint of water. Mode .—Carefully weigh the flour and butter, and have the exact proportion; squeeze the butter well, to extract the water from it, and afterwards wring it in a clean cloth, that no moisture may remain. Sift the flour; see that it is perfectly dry, and proceed in the following manner to make the paste, using a very clean paste-board and rolling-pin:—Supposing the quantity to be 1 lb. of flour, work th
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VERY GOOD SHORT CRUST FOR FRUIT TARTS.
VERY GOOD SHORT CRUST FOR FRUIT TARTS.
1210. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of flour allow 3/4 lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of sifted sugar, 1/3 pint of water. Mode .—Rub the butter into the flour, after having ascertained that the latter is perfectly dry; add the sugar, and mix the whole into a stiff paste, with about 1/3 pint of water. Roll it out two or three times, folding the paste over each time, and it will be ready for use. Average cost , 1s. 1d. per lb. 1211. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, the yolks o
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AUNT NELLY'S PUDDING.
AUNT NELLY'S PUDDING.
1224. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of treacle, 1/2 lb. of suet, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, a few strips of candied lemon-peel, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, 2 eggs. Mode .—Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, treacle, lemon-peel minced, and candied lemon-peel; add the cream, lemon-juice, and 2 well-beaten eggs; beat the pudding well, put it into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil from 3-1/2 to 4 hours. Time .—3-1/2 to 4 hours. Average cost , 1s. 2d. Sufficien
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BOILED APPLE PUDDING.
BOILED APPLE PUDDING.
1232. INGREDIENTS.—Crust No. 1215, apples, sugar to taste, 1 small teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice. Mode .—Make a butter-crust by recipe No. 1213, or a suet one by recipe No. 1215, using for a moderate-sized pudding from 3/4 to 1 lb. of flour, with the other ingredients in proportion. Butter a basin; line it with some of the paste; pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and fill the basin with these; add the sugar, the lemon-peel and juice, and cover
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APPLE TART OR PIE.
APPLE TART OR PIE.
1233. INGREDIENTS.—Puff-paste No. 1205 or 1206, apples; to every lb. of unpared apples allow 2 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice. Mode .—Make 1/2 lb. of puff-paste by either of the above-named recipes, place a border of it round the edge of a pie-dish, and fill it with apples pared, cored, and cut into slices; sweeten with moist sugar, add the lemon-peel and juice, and 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of water; cover with crust, cut it evenly ro
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APPLE SNOWBALLS.
APPLE SNOWBALLS.
1235. INGREDIENTS.—2 teacupfuls of rice, apples, moist sugar, cloves. Mode .—Boil the rice in milk until three-parts done; then strain it off, and pare and core the apples without dividing them. Put a small quantity of sugar and a clove into each apple, put the rice round them, and tie each ball separately in a cloth. Boil until the apples are tender; then take them up, remove the cloths, and serve. Time .—1/2 hour to boil the rice separately; 1/2 to 1 hour with the apple. Seasonable from August
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APPLE TOURTE OR CAKE.
APPLE TOURTE OR CAKE.
( German Recipe .) 1236. INGREDIENTS.—10 or 12 apples, sugar to taste, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs, 1/4 pint of cream or milk, 1/4 lb. of butter, 3/4 lb. of good short crust No. 1211, 3 oz. of sweet almonds. Mode .—Pare, core, and cut the apples into small pieces; put sufficient moist sugar to sweeten them into a basin; add the lemon-peel, which should be finely minced, and the cream; stir these ingredients well, whisk the eggs, and melt the butter; mix altogether, add the sliced apple, an
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BAKED APRICOT PUDDING.
BAKED APRICOT PUDDING.
1238. INGREDIENTS.—12 large apricots, 3/4 pint of bread crumbs, 1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 glass of sherry. Mode .—Make the milk boiling hot, and pour it on to the bread crumbs; when half cold, add the sugar, the well-whisked yolks of the eggs, and the sherry. Divide the apricots in half, scald them until they are soft, and break them up with a spoon, adding a few of the kernels, which should be well pounded in a mortar; then mix the fruit and other ingredient
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APRICOT TART.
APRICOT TART.
1239. INGREDIENTS.—12 or 14 apricots, sugar to taste, puff-paste or short crust. Mode .—Break the apricots in half, take out the stones, and put them into a pie-dish, in the centre of which place a very small cup or jar, bottom uppermost; sweeten with good moist sugar, but add no water. Line the edge of the dish with paste, put on the cover, and ornament the pie in any of the usual modes. Bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, according to size; and if puff-paste is used, glaze it about 10 minutes before th
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BAKEWELL PUDDING.
BAKEWELL PUDDING.
( Very Rich .) 1242. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of puff-paste, 5 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 oz. of almonds, jam. Mode .—Cover a dish with thin paste, and put over this a layer of any kind of jam, 1/2 inch thick; put the yolks of 5 eggs into a basin with the white of 1, and beat these well; add the sifted sugar, the butter, which should be melted, and the almonds, which should be well pounded; beat all together until well mixed, then pour it into the dish over the jam, and bake for an h
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II.
II.
1243. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 pint of bread crumbs, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, jam. Mode .—Put the bread crumbs at the bottom of a pie-dish, then over them a layer of jam of any kind that may be preferred; mix the milk and eggs together; add the sugar, butter, and pounded almonds; beat fill well together; pour it into the dish, and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour. Time .—1 hour. Average cost . 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. S
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BARONESS PUDDING.
BARONESS PUDDING.
( Author's Recipe .) 1244. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 lb. of suet, 3/4 lb. of raisins weighed after being stoned, 3/4 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of milk, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt. Mode .—Prepare the suet, by carefully freeing it from skin, and chop it finely; stone the raisins, and cut them in halves, and mix both these ingredients with the salt and flour; moisten the whole with the above proportion of milk, stir the mixture well, and tie the pudding in a floured cloth, which has been previously wrung out in
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BARBERRY TART.
BARBERRY TART.
1245. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of barberries allow 3/4 lb. of lump sugar; paste. [Illustration: LEAF IN PUFF-PASTE.] Mode .—Pick the barberries from the stalks, and put the fruit into a stone jar; place this jar in boiling water, and let it simmer very slowly until the fruit is soft; then put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and boil gently for 15 minutes; line a tartlet-pan with paste, bake it, and, when the paste is cold, fill with the barberries, and ornament the tart with a few bake
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BOILED BATTER PUDDING.
BOILED BATTER PUDDING.
1248. INGREDIENTS.—3 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 1 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, a little salt. Mode .—Put the flour into a basin, and add sufficient milk to moisten it; carefully rub down all the lumps with a spoon, then pour in the remainder of the milk, and stir in the butter, which should be previously melted; keep beating the mixture, add the eggs and a pinch of salt, and when the batter is quite smooth, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down very tightly, and put it into boil
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ORANGE BATTER PUDDING.
ORANGE BATTER PUDDING.
1249. INGREDIENTS.—4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 1-1/4 oz. of loaf sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour. Mode .—Make the batter with the above ingredients, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 1 hour. As soon as it is turned out of the basin, put a small jar of orange marmalade all over the top, and send the pudding very quickly to table. Time .—1 hour. Average cost , with the marmalade, 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time; but more suitable f
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BAKED BREAD PUDDING.
BAKED BREAD PUDDING.
1250. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of grated bread, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 4 oz. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of candied peel, 6 bitter almonds, 1 tablespoonful of brandy. Mode .—Put the milk into a stewpan, with the bitter almonds; let it infuse for 1/4 hour; bring it to the boiling point; strain it on to the bread crumbs, and let these remain till cold; then add the eggs, which should be well whisked, the butter, sugar, and brandy, and beat the pudding well until all the ingredients are tho
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VERY PLAIN BREAD PUDDING.
VERY PLAIN BREAD PUDDING.
1251. INGREDIENTS.—Odd pieces of crust or crumb of bread; to every quart allow 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 3 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1-1/4 oz. of butter. Mode .—Break the bread into small pieces, and pour on them as much boiling water as will soak them well. Let these stand till the water is cool; then press it out, and mash the bread with a fork until it is quite free from lumps. Measure this pulp, and to every quart stir in salt, nutmeg, sugar, and
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BOILED BREAD PUDDING.
BOILED BREAD PUDDING.
1252. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of milk, 3/4 pint of bread crumbs, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of currants, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. Mode .—Make the milk boiling, and pour it on the bread crumbs; let these remain till cold; then add the other ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well beaten and the currants well washed, picked, and dried. Beat the pudding well, and put it into a buttered basin; tie it down tightly with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and bo
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MINIATURE BREAD PUDDINGS.
MINIATURE BREAD PUDDINGS.
1254. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of milk, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 1 teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel. Mode .—Make the milk boiling, pour it on to the bread crumbs, and let them soak for about 1/2 hour. Beat the eggs, mix these with the bread crumbs, add the remaining ingredients, and stir well until all is thoroughly mixed. Butter some small cups; rather more than half fill them with the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven fr
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BAKED BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING.
BAKED BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING.
1255. INGREDIENTS.—9 thin slices of bread and butter, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 4 eggs, sugar to taste, 1/4 lb. of currants, flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon-peel or nutmeg. Mode .—Cut 9 slices of bread and butter not very thick, and put them into a pie-dish, with currants between each layer and on the top. Sweeten and flavour the milk, either by infusing a little lemon-peel in it, or by adding a few drops of essence of vanilla; well whisk the eggs, and stir these to the milk. Strain this over the
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CANARY PUDDING.
CANARY PUDDING.
1258. INGREDIENTS.—The weight of 3 eggs in sugar and butter, the weight of 2 eggs in flour, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs. Mode .—Melt the butter to a liquid state, but do not allow it to oil; stir to this the sugar and finely-minced lemon-peel, and gradually dredge in the flour, keeping the mixture well stirred; whisk the eggs; add these to the pudding; beat all the ingredients until thoroughly blended, and put them into a buttered mould or basin; boil for 2 hours, and serve with sweet sauc
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BAKED OR BOILED CARROT PUDDING.
BAKED OR BOILED CARROT PUDDING.
1259. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of suet, 1/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 3/4 lb. of carrot, 1/4 lb. of currants, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs, milk, 1/4 nutmeg. Mode .—Boil the carrots until tender enough to mash to a pulp; add the remaining ingredients, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter. If to be boiled, put the mixture into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 2-1/2 hours: if to be baked, put it into a pie-dish, a
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CHERRY TART.
CHERRY TART.
1261. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of cherries, 2 small tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of short crust, No. 1210 or 1211. Mode .—Pick the stalks from the cherries, put them, with the sugar, into a deep pie-dish just capable of holding them, with a small cup placed upside down in the midst of them. Make a short crust with 1/2 lb. of flour, by either of the recipes 1210 or 1211; lay a border round the edge of the dish; put on the cover, and ornament the edges; bake in a brisk oven from 1/2 hour t
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COLLEGE PUDDINGS.
COLLEGE PUDDINGS.
1263. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of bread crumbs, 6 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, a few thin slices of candied peel, 3 oz. of sugar, 1/4 nutmeg, 3 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy. Mode .—Put the bread crumbs into a basin; add the suet, currants, candied peel, sugar, and nutmeg, grated, and stir these ingredients until they are thoroughly mixed. Beat up the eggs, moisten the pudding with these, and put in the brandy; beat well for a few minutes, then form the mixture into round balls
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CURRANT DUMPLINGS.
CURRANT DUMPLINGS.
1264. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of suet, 1/2 lb. of currants, rather more than 1/2 pint of water. Mode .—Chop the suet finely, mix it with the flour, and add the currants, which should be nicely washed, picked, and dried; mix the whole to a limp paste with the water (if wanted very nice, use milk); divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; tie them in cloths, and boil for 1-1/4 hour. They may be boiled without a cloth: they should then be made into round balls, and dropped into boiling water, an
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BOILED CUSTARD PUDDING.
BOILED CUSTARD PUDDING.
1269. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of milk, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, flavouring to taste. Mode .—Flavour the milk by infusing in it a little lemon-rind or cinnamon; whisk the eggs, stir the flour gradually to these, and pour over them the milk, and stir the mixture well. Butter a basin that will exactly hold it; put in the custard, and tie a floured cloth over; plunge it into boiling water, and turn it about for a few minutes, to prevent the flour from settling in one part. Boil it slowly for 1/
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DAMSON TART.
DAMSON TART.
1270. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/4 pint of damsons, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of short or puff crust. Mode .—Put the damsons, with the sugar between them, into a deep pie-dish, in the midst of which, place a small cup or jar turned upside down; pile the fruit high in the middle, line the edges of the dish with short or puff crust, whichever may be preferred; put on the cover, ornament the edges, and bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour in a good oven. If puff-crust is used, about 10 minutes before the pie is d
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DELHI PUDDING.
DELHI PUDDING.
1272. INGREDIENTS.—4 large apples, a little grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 large tablespoonfuls of sugar, 6 oz. of currants, 3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1215. Mode .—Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices; put them into a saucepan, with the nutmeg, lemon-peel, and sugar; stir them over the fire until soft; then have ready the above proportion of crust, roll it out thin, spread the apples over the paste, sprinkle over the currants, roll the pudding up, closing the ends pro
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EMPRESS PUDDING.
EMPRESS PUDDING.
1273. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of rice, 2 oz. of butter, 3 eggs, jam, sufficient milk to soften the rice. Mode .—Boil the rice in the milk until very soft; then add the butter boil it for a few minutes after the latter ingredient is put in, and set it by to cool. Well beat the eggs, stir these in, and line a dish with puff-paste; put over this a layer of rice, then a thin layer of any kind of jam, then another layer of rice, and proceed in this manner until the dish is full; and bake in a moderate o
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EXETER PUDDING.
EXETER PUDDING.
( Very rich .) 1274. INGREDIENTS.—10 oz. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of sago, 7 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 1/4 pint of rum, 7 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, 4 small sponge cakes, 2 oz. of ratafias, 1/2 lb. of jam. Mode .—Put the bread crumbs into a basin with the sago, suet, sugar, minced lemon-peel, rum, and 4 eggs; stir these ingredients well together, then add 3 more eggs and the cream, and let the mixture be well beaten. Then butter a mould, strew i
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FIG PUDDING.
FIG PUDDING.
1275. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of figs, 1 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs, milk. Mode .—Cut the figs into small pieces, grate the bread finely, and chop the suet very small; mix these well together, add the flour, the eggs, which should be well beaten, and sufficient milk to form the whole into a stiff paste; butter a mould or basin, press the pudding into it very closely, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 3 hours, or rather longer; turn it out of the mould, and se
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II.
II.
( Staffordshire Recipe .) 1276. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of figs, 6 oz. of suet, 3/4 lb. of flour, milk. Mode .—Chop the suet finely, mix with it the flour, and make these into a smooth paste with milk; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch, cut the figs in small pieces, and strew them over the paste; roll it up, make the ends secure, tie the pudding in a cloth, and boil it from 1-1/2 to 2 hours. Time .—1-1/2 to 2 hours. Average cost , 1s. 1d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any
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FOLKESTONE PUDDING-PIES.
FOLKESTONE PUDDING-PIES.
1277. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of ground rice, 3 oz. of butter, 1/4 lb. of sugar, flavouring of lemon-peel or bay-leaf, 6 eggs, puff-paste, currants. Mode .—Infuse 2 laurel or bay leaves, or the rind of 1/2 lemon, in the milk, and when it is well flavoured, strain it, and add the rice; boil these for 1/4 hour, stirring all the time; then take them off the fire, stir in the butter, sugar, and eggs, and let these latter be well beaten before they are added to the other ingredients; when
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GERMAN PUDDING.
GERMAN PUDDING.
1279. INGREDIENTS.—2 teaspoonfuls of flour, 1 teaspoonful of arrowroot, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of brandy. Mode .—Boil the milk with the lemon-rind until well flavoured; then strain it, and mix with it the flour, arrowroot, butter, and sugar. Boil these ingredients for a few minutes, keeping them well stirred; then take them off the fire and mix with them the eggs, yolks and whites, beaten separately and added separately. B
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GINGER PUDDING.
GINGER PUDDING.
1281. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 2 large teaspoonfuls of grated ginger. Mode .—Shred the suet very fine, mix it with the flour, sugar, and ginger; stir all well together; butter a basin, and put the mixture in dry ; tie a cloth over, and boil for 3 hours. Time .—3 hours. Average cost , 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time....
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GOLDEN PUDDING.
GOLDEN PUDDING.
1282. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of marmalade, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 4 eggs. Mode .—Put the bread crumbs into a basin; mix with them the suet, which should be finely minced, the marmalade, and the sugar; stir all these ingredients well together, beat the eggs to a froth, moisten the pudding with these, and when well mixed, put it into a mould or buttered basin; tie down with a floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours. When turned out, strew a little fine-sifted sugar o
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BAKED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.
BAKED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.
1283. INGREDIENTS.—Gooseberries, 3 eggs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of bread crumbs, sugar to taste. Mode .—Put the gooseberries into a jar, previously cutting off the tops and tails; place this jar in boiling water, and let it boil until the gooseberries are soft enough to pulp; then beat them through a coarse sieve, and to every pint of pulp add 3 well-whisked eggs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of bread crumbs, and sugar to taste; beat the mixture well, put a border of puff-paste round the
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BOILED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.
BOILED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.
1284. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1-1/2 pint of green gooseberries, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar. Mode .—Line a pudding-basin with suet crust no. 1215, rolled out to about 1/2 inch in thickness, and, with a pair of scissors, cut off the tops and tails of the gooseberries; fill the basin with the fruit, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2-1/2 to 3 hours; turn it out of t
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GOOSEBERRY TART.
GOOSEBERRY TART.
1285. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of gooseberries, 1/2 lb. of short crust No. 1211, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar. Mode .—With a pair of scissors cut off the tops and tails of the gooseberries; put them into a deep pie-dish, pile the fruit high in the centre, and put in the sugar; line the edge of the dish with short crust, put on the cover, and ornament the edges of the tart; bake in a good oven for about 3/4 hour, and before being sent to table, strew over it some fine-sifted sugar. A jug of cream, or a
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HERODOTUS PUDDING.
HERODOTUS PUDDING.
1287. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of good figs, 6 oz. of suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 3 eggs, nutmeg to taste. Mode .—Mince the suet and figs very finely; add the remaining ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well whisked; beat the mixture for a few minutes, put it into a buttered mould, tie it down with a floured cloth, and boil the pudding for 5 hours. Serve with wine sauce. Time .—5 hours. Average cost , 10d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Sea
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HUNTER'S PUDDING.
HUNTER'S PUDDING.
1288. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 lb. of moist sugar, 8 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 3 lb. of mixed candied peel, 1 glass of brandy, 10 drops of essence of lemon, 10 drops of essence of almonds, 1/2 nutmeg, 2 blades of mace, 6 cloves. Mode .—Stone and shred the raisins rather small, chop the suet finely, and rub the bread until all lumps are well broken; pound the spice to powder, cut the candied peel into thin shreds, and mix all
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ICED PUDDING.
ICED PUDDING.
( Parisian Recipe .) [Illustration: ICED-PUDDING MOULD.] 1289. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 2 oz. of bitter ones, 3/4 lb. of sugar, 8 eggs, 1-1/2 pint of milk. Mode .—Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly in a cloth, then pound them in a mortar until reduced to a smooth paste; add to these the well-beaten eggs, the sugar, and milk; stir these ingredients over the fire until they thicken, but do not allow them to boil; then strain and put the mixture into the freezing-pot; surround it w
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ROLY-POLY JAM PUDDING.
ROLY-POLY JAM PUDDING.
1291. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 lb of suet-crust No. 1215, 3/4 lb. of any kind of jam. Mode .—Make a nice light suet-crust by recipe No. 1215, and roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Spread the jam equally over it, leaving a small margin of paste without any, where the pudding joins. Roll it up, fasten the ends securely, and tie it in a floured cloth; put the pudding into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. Mincemeat or marmalade may be substituted for the jam, and makes excellent puddings.
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LEMON CHEESECAKES.
LEMON CHEESECAKES.
1292. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of butter, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 eggs, the rind of 2 lemons and the juice of 3. Mode .—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully grating the lemon-rind and straining the juice. Keep stirring the mixture over the fire until the sugar is dissolved, and it begins to thicken: when of the consistency of honey, it is done; then put it into small jars, and keep in a dry place. This mixture will remain good 3 or 4 months. When made into cheesecakes, add a few pounded
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LEMON MINCEMEAT.
LEMON MINCEMEAT.
1293. INGREDIENTS.—2 large lemons, 6 large apples, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of currants, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of citron, mixed spice to taste. Mode .—Pare the lemons, squeeze them, and boil the peel until tender enough to mash. Add to the mashed lemon-peel the apples, which should be pared, cored, and minced; the chopped suet, currants, sugar, sliced peel, and spice. Strain the lemon-juice to these ingredients, stir the mixture well, and put it in a jar with a close
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LEMON DUMPLINGS.
LEMON DUMPLINGS.
1294. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of grated bread, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 2 eggs, 1 large lemon. [Illustration: LEMON DUMPLINGS.] Mode .—Mix the bread, suet, and moist sugar well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced. Moisten with the eggs and strained lemon-juice; stir well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups. Tie them down and boil for 3/4 hour. Turn them out on a dish, strew sifted sugar over them, and serve with wine sauce. Time .—3/
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BAKED LEMON PUDDING.
BAKED LEMON PUDDING.
1295. INGREDIENTS.—The yolks of 4 eggs, 4 oz. of pounded sugar, 1 lemon, 1/4 lb. of butter, puff-crust. Mode .—Beat the eggs to a froth; mix with them the sugar and warmed butter; stir these ingredients well together, putting in the grated rind and strained juice of the lemon-peel. Line a shallow dish with puff-paste; put in the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven for 40 minutes; turn the pudding out of the dish, strew over it sifted sugar, and serve. Time .—40 minutes. Average cost , 10d. Suff
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II.
II.
1296. INGREDIENTS.—10 oz. of bread crumbs, 2 pints of milk, 2 oz. of butter, 1 lemon, 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of brandy. Mode .—Bring the milk to the boiling point, stir in the butter, and pour these hot over the bread crumbs; add the sugar and very finely-minced lemon-peel; beat the eggs, and stir these in with the brandy to the other ingredients; put a paste round the dish, and bake for 3/4 hour. Time .—3/4 hour. Average cost , 1s. 2d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. S
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BOILED LEMON PUDDING.
BOILED LEMON PUDDING.
1298. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of chopped suet, 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 2 small lemons, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/4 lb. of flour, 2 eggs, milk. Mode .—Mix the suet, bread crumbs, sugar, and flour well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced, and the juice, which should be strained. When these ingredients are well mixed, moisten with the eggs and sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter; put it into a well-buttered mould, and boil for 3-1/2 hou
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PLAIN LEMON PUDDING.
PLAIN LEMON PUDDING.
1299. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of lard or dripping, the juice of 1 large lemon, 1 teaspoonful of flour, sugar. Mode .—Make the above proportions of flour and lard into a smooth paste, and roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Squeeze the lemon-juice, strain it into a cup, stir the flour into it, and as much moist sugar as will make it into a stiff and thick paste; spread this mixture over the paste, roll it up, secure the ends, and tie the pudding in a floured cloth. Boil f
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SWEET MACARONI PUDDING.
SWEET MACARONI PUDDING.
1301. INGREDIENTS.—2-1/2 oz. of macaroni, 2 pints of milk, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 3 eggs, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy. Mode .—Put the macaroni, with a pint of the milk, into a saucepan with the lemon-peel, and let it simmer gently until the macaroni is tender; then put it into a pie-dish without the peel; mix the other pint of milk with the eggs; stir these well together, adding the sugar and brandy, and pour the mixture over the macaroni. Grate a little nutmeg o
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MARLBOROUGH PUDDING.
MARLBOROUGH PUDDING.
1304. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of powdered lump sugar, 4 eggs, puff-paste, a layer of any kind of jam. Mode .—Beat the butter to a cream, stir in the powdered sugar, whisk the eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When these are well mixed, line a dish with puff-paste, spread over a layer of any kind of jam that may be preferred, pour in the mixture, and bake the pudding for rather more than 1/2 hour. Time .—Rather more than 1/2 hour. Average cost , 1s. Sufficient for 5 or
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MARMALADE AND VERMICELLI PUDDING.
MARMALADE AND VERMICELLI PUDDING.
1305. INGREDIENTS.—1 breakfastcupful of vermicelli, 2 tablespoonfuls of marmalade, 1/4 lb. of raisins, sugar to taste, 3 eggs, milk. Mode .—Pour some boiling milk on the vermicelli, and let it remain covered for 10 minutes; then mix with it the marmalade, stoned raisins, sugar, and beaten eggs. Stir all well together, put the mixture into a buttered mould, boil for 1-1/2 hour, and serve with custard sauce. Time .—1-1/2 hour. Average cost . 1s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any tim
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BAKED OB BOILED MARROW PUDDING.
BAKED OB BOILED MARROW PUDDING.
1307. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of bread crumbs, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 6 oz. of marrow, 4 eggs, 1/4 lb. of raisins or currants, or 2 oz. of each; sugar and grated nutmeg to taste. Mode .—Make the milk boiling, pour it hot on to the bread crumbs, and let these remain covered for about 1/2 hour; shred the marrow, beat up the eggs, and mix these with the bread crumbs; add the remaining ingredients, beat the mixture well, and either put it into a buttered mould and boil it for 2-1/2 hours, or put it into
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MILITARY PUDDINGS.
MILITARY PUDDINGS.
1308. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of moist sugar, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon. Mode .—Chop the suet finely, mix it with the bread crumbs and sugar, and mince the lemon-rind and strain the juice; stir these into the other ingredients, mix well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups, and bake for rather more than 1/2 hour; turn them out on the dish, and serve with lemon-sauce. The above ingredients may be made into small balls, and boiled for about
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MINCEMEAT.
MINCEMEAT.
1309. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of raisins, 3 lbs. of currants, 1-1/2 lb. of lean beef, 3 lbs. of beef suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of citron, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 2 oz. of candied orange-peel, 1 small nutmeg, 1 pottle of apples, the rind of 2 lemons, the juice of 1, 1/2 pint of brandy. Mode .—Stone and cut the raisins once or twice across, but do not chop them; wash, dry, and pick the currants free from stalks and grit, and mince the beef and suet, taking care that the latter is chopped
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EXCELLENT MINCEMEAT.
EXCELLENT MINCEMEAT.
1310. INGREDIENTS.—3 large lemons, 3 large apples, 1 lb. of stoned raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of sliced candied citron, 1 oz. of sliced candied orange-peel, and the same quantity of lemon-peel, 1 teacupful of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls of orange marmalade. Mode .—Grate the rinds of the lemons; squeeze out the juice, strain it, and boil the remainder of the lemons until tender enough to pulp or chop very finely. Then add to this pulp the apples, which sh
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MINCE PIES.
MINCE PIES.
1311. INGREDIENTS.—Good puff-paste No. 1205, mincemeat No. 1309. [Illustration: MINCE PIES.] Mode .—Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/4 inch, and line some good-sized pattypans with it; fill them with mincemeat, cover with the paste, and cut it off all round close to the edge of the tin. Put the pies into a brisk oven, to draw the paste up, and bake for 25 minutes, or longer, should the pies be very large; brush them over with the white of an e
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MONDAY'S PUDDING.
MONDAY'S PUDDING.
1312. INGREDIENTS.—The remains of cold plum-pudding, brandy, custard made with 5 eggs to every pint of milk. Mode .—Cut the remains of a good cold plum-pudding into finger-pieces, soak them in a little brandy, and lay them cross-barred in a mould until full. Make a custard with the above proportion of milk and eggs, flavouring it with nutmeg or lemon-rind; fill up the mould with it; tie it down with a cloth, and boil or steam it for an hour. Serve with a little of the custard poured over, to whi
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BAKED ORANGE PUDDING.
BAKED ORANGE PUDDING.
1314. INGREDIENTS.—6 oz. of stale sponge cake or bruised ratafias, 6 oranges, 1 pint of milk, 6 eggs, 1/2 lb. of sugar. Mode .—Bruise the sponge cake or ratafias into fine crumbs, and pour upon them the milk, which should be boiling. Rub the rinds of 2 of the oranges on sugar, and add this, with the juice of the remainder, to the other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, stir them in, sweeten to taste, and put the mixture into a pie-dish previously lined with puff-paste. Bake for rather more than 1/2
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ALMOND FLOWERS.
ALMOND FLOWERS.
1316. INGREDIENTS.—Puff-paste No. 1205; to every 1/2 lb. of paste allow 3 oz. of almonds, sifted sugar, the white of an egg. Mode .—Roll the paste out to the thickness of 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted cutter, stamp out as many pieces as may be required. Work the paste up again, roll it out, and, with a smaller cutter, stamp out some pieces the size of a shilling. Brush the larger pieces over with the white of an egg, and place one of the smaller pieces on each. Blanch and cut the almonds in
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FLUTED ROLLS.
FLUTED ROLLS.
1317. INGREDIENTS.—Puff-paste, the white of an egg, sifted sugar, jelly or preserve. Mode .—Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205 (trimmings answer very well for little dishes of this sort); roll it out to the thickness of 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter, stamp out as many round pieces as may be required; brush over the upper side with the white of an egg; roll up the pieces, pressing the paste lightly together where it joins; place the rolls on a baking-sheet, and bake fo
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PASTRY SANDWICHES.
PASTRY SANDWICHES.
1318. INGREDIENTS.—Puff-paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg, sifted sugar. Mode .—Roll the paste out thin; put half of it on a baking-sheet or tin, and spread equally over it apricot, greengage, or any preserve that may be preferred. Lay over this preserve another thin paste; press the edges together all round; and mark the paste in lines with a knife on the surface, to show where to cut it when baked. Bake from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour; and, a short time before being done, take the pastry
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POLISH TARTLETS.
POLISH TARTLETS.
1320. INGREDIENTS.—Puff-paste, the white of an egg, pounded sugar. Mode .—Roll some good puff-paste out thin, and cut it into 2-1/2-inch squares; brush each square over with the white of an egg, then fold down the corners, so that they all meet in the middle of each piece of paste; slightly press the two pieces together, brush them over with the egg, sift over sugar, and bake in a nice quick oven for about 1/4 hour. When they are done, make a little hole in the middle of the paste, and fill it u
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PARADISE PUDDING.
PARADISE PUDDING.
1322. INGREDIENTS.—3 eggs, 3 apples, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of currants, salt and grated nutmeg to taste, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 1/2 wineglassful of brandy. Mode .—Pare, core, and mince the apples into small pieces, and mix them with the other dry ingredients; beat up the eggs, moisten the mixture with these, and beat it well; stir in the brandy, and put the pudding into a buttered mould; tie it down with a cloth, boil for 1-1/2 hour, and serve with sweet sauce. Time .—1-
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PEASE PUDDING.
PEASE PUDDING.
1323. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of split peas, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, pepper and salt to taste. Mode .—Put the peas to soak over-night, in rain-water, and float off any that are wormeaten or discoloured. Tie them loosely in a clean cloth, leaving a little room for them to swell, and put them on to boil in cold rain-water, allowing 2-1/2 hours after the water has simmered up. When the peas are tender, take them up and drain; rub them through a colander with a wooden spoon; add the butter, eggs, p
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BAKED PLUM-PUDDING.
BAKED PLUM-PUDDING.
1324. INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of suet, 2 eggs, 1 pint of milk, a few slices of candied peel. Mode .—Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, currants, stoned raisins, and candied peel; moisten with the well-beaten eggs, and add sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of very thick batter. Put it into a buttered dish, and bake in a good oven from 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve. For a very pl
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AN UNRIVALLED PLUM-PUDDING.
AN UNRIVALLED PLUM-PUDDING.
1326. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of muscatel raisins, 1-3/4 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of sultana raisins, 2 lbs. of the finest moist sugar, 2 lbs. of bread crumbs, 16 eggs, 2 lbs. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of mixed candied peel, the rind of 2 lemons, 1 oz. of ground nutmeg, 1 oz. of ground cinnamon, 1/2 oz. of pounded bitter almonds, 1/4 pint of brandy. Mode .—Stone and cut up the raisins, but do not chop them; wash and dry the currants, and cut the candied peel into thin slices. Mix all the dry in
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POTATO PASTY.
POTATO PASTY.
1332. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of rump-steak or mutton cutlets, pepper and salt to taste, 1/3 pint of weak broth or gravy, 1 oz. of butter, mashed potatoes. [Illustration: POTATO-PASTY PAN.] Mode .—Place the meat, cut in small pieces, at the bottom of the pan; season it with pepper and salt, and add the gravy and butter broken, into small pieces. Put on the perforated plate, with its valve-pipe screwed on, and fill up the whole space to the top of the tube with nicely-mashed potatoes mixed with a
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POTATO PUDDING.
POTATO PUDDING.
1333. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of mashed potatoes, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 1/4 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt, the juice and rind of 1 small lemon, 2 oz. of sugar. Mode .—Boil sufficient potatoes to make 1/2 lb. when mashed; add to these the butter, eggs, milk, sherry, lemon-juice, and sugar; mince the lemon-peel very finely, and beat all the ingredients well together. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for rather more than 1/2 hour. To enrich it,
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TO ICE OR GLAZE PASTRY.
TO ICE OR GLAZE PASTRY.
1334. To glaze pastry, which is the usual method adopted for meat or raised pies, break an egg, separate the yolk from the white, and beat the former for a short time. Then, when the pastry is nearly baked, take it out of the oven, brush it over with this beaten yolk of egg, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze. 1335. To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts and sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate, and with the blade of a knife beat it to a
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BOILED RHUBARB PUDDING.
BOILED RHUBARB PUDDING.
1338. INGREDIENTS.—4 or 5 sticks of fine rhubarb, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 3/4 lb. of suet-crust No. 1215. Mode .—Make a suet-crust with 3/4 lb. of flour, by recipe No. 1215, and line a buttered basin with it. Wash and wipe the rhubarb, and, if old, string it—that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Cut it into inch lengths, fill the basin with it, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil fr
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RHUBARB TART.
RHUBARB TART.
1339. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, about 5 sticks of large rhubarb, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar. Mode .—Make a puff-crust by recipe No. 1206; line the edges of a deep pie-dish with it, and wash, wipe, and cut the rhubarb into pieces about 1 inch long. Should it be old and tough, string it, that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Pile the fruit high in the dish, as it shrinks very much in the cooking; put in the sugar, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake the tart in a wel
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RAISED PIE OF VEAL AND HAM.
RAISED PIE OF VEAL AND HAM.
1341. INGREDIENTS.—3 or 4 lbs. of veal cutlets, a few slices of bacon or ham, seasoning of pepper, salt, nutmeg, and allspice, forcemeat No. 415, 2 lbs. of hot-water paste No. 1217, 1/2 pint of good strong gravy. Mode .—To raise the crust for a pie with the hands is a very difficult task, and can only be accomplished by skilled and experienced cooks. The process should be seen to be satisfactorily learnt, and plenty of practice given to the making of raised pies, as by that means only will succe
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BAKED RICE PUDDING.
BAKED RICE PUDDING.
1342. INGREDIENTS.—1 small teacupful of rice, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 2 oz. of beef marrow, 1/4 lb. of currants, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, nutmeg, 1/4 lb. of sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Put the lemon-rind and milk into a stewpan, and let it infuse till the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; in the mean time, boil the rice until tender in water, with a very small quantity of salt, and, when done, let it be thoroughly drained. Beat the eggs, stir to them the m
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BUTTERED RICE.
BUTTERED RICE.
1349. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, grated nutmeg or pounded cinnamon. Mode .—Wash and pick the rice, drain and put it into a saucepan with the milk; let it swell gradually, and, when tender, pour off the milk; stir in the butter, sugar, and nutmeg or cinnamon, and, when the butter is thoroughly melted, and the whole is quite hot, serve. After the milk is poured off, be particular that the rice does not burn: to prevent this, do not cease stir
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SAVOURY CASSEROLE OF RICE.
SAVOURY CASSEROLE OF RICE.
Or Rice Border, for Ragouts, Fricassees, &c. (an Entree). 1350. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 lb. of rice, 3 pints of weak stock or broth, 2 slices of fat ham, 1 teaspoonful of salt. [Illustration: CASSEROLE OF RICE.] Mode .—A casserole of rice, when made in a mould, is not such a difficult operation as when it is moulded by the hand. It is an elegant and inexpensive entrée, as the remains of cold fish, flesh, or fowl may be served as ragoûts, fricassees, &c., inclosed in the casserole. It
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BAKED OR BOILED GROUND RICE PUDDING.
BAKED OR BOILED GROUND RICE PUDDING.
1353. INGREDIENTS.—2 pints of milk, 6 tablespoonfuls of ground rice, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, flavouring of lemon-rind, nutmeg, bitter almonds or bay-leaf. Mode .—Put 1-1/2 pint of the milk into a stewpan, with any of the above flavourings, and bring it to the boiling-point, and, with the other 1/2 pint of milk, mix the ground rice to a smooth batter; strain the boiling milk to this, and stir over the fire until the mixture is tolerably thick; then pour it into a basin, leave it uncovered, and wh
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ICED RICE PUDDING.
ICED RICE PUDDING.
1354. INGREDIENTS.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 1/2 lb. of sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 small teaspoonful of essence of vanilla. Mode .—Put the rice into a stewpan, with the milk and sugar, and let these simmer over a gentle fire until the rice is sufficiently soft to break up into a smooth mass, and should the milk dry away too much, a little more may be added. Stir the rice occasionally, to prevent its burning, then beat it to a smooth mixture; add the yolks of the eggs, which should be we
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MINIATURE RICE PUDDINGS.
MINIATURE RICE PUDDINGS.
1355. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 4 eggs, sugar to taste; flavouring of lemon-peel, bitter almonds, or vanilla; a few strips of candied peel. Mode .—Let the rice swell in 1 pint of the milk over a slow fire, putting with it a strip of lemon-peel; stir to it the butter and the other 1/2 pint of milk, and let the mixture cool. Then add the well-beaten eggs, and a few drops of essence of almonds or essence of vanilla, whichever may be preferred; butter w
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ARROWROOT SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
ARROWROOT SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
1356. INGREDIENTS.—2 small teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, 4 dessert-spoonfuls of pounded sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1/2 pint of water. Mode .—Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the water; put this into a stewpan; add the sugar, strained lemon-juice, and grated nutmeg. Stir these ingredients over the fire until they boil, when the sauce is ready for use. A small quantity of wine, or any liqueur, would very much improve the flavour of this sauce: it is usually served w
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CHERRY SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.
CHERRY SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.
( German Recipe .) 1357. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of cherries, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1 wineglassful of port wine, a little grated lemon-rind, 4 pounded cloves, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, sugar to taste. Mode .—Stone the cherries, and pound the kernels in a mortar to a smooth paste; put the butter and flour into a saucepan; stir them over the fire until of a pale brown; then add the cherries, the pounded kernels, the wine, and the water. Simmer these gently
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LEMON SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.
LEMON SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.
1358. INGREDIENTS.—The rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1 large wineglassful of sherry, 1 wineglassful of water, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs. Mode .—Rub the rind of the lemon on to some lumps of sugar; squeeze out the juice, and strain it; put the butter and flour into a saucepan, stir them over the fire, and when of a pale brown, add the wine, water, and strained lemon-juice. Crush the lumps of sugar that were rubbed on the lemon; stir these into the
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SOYER'S SAUCE FOR PLUM-PUDDING.
SOYER'S SAUCE FOR PLUM-PUDDING.
1359. INGREDIENTS.—The yolks of 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of powdered sugar, 1 gill of milk, a very little grated lemon-rind, 2 small wineglassfuls of brandy. Mode .—Separate the yolks from the whites of 3 eggs, and put the former into a stewpan; add the sugar, milk, and grated lemon-rind, and stir over the fire until the mixture thickens; but do not allow it to boil . Put in the brandy; let the sauce stand by the side of the fire, to get quite hot; keep stirring it, and serve in a boat or tureen
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SWEET SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
SWEET SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
1360. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter made with milk, 4 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, flavouring; of grated lemon-rind, or nutmeg, or cinnamon. Mode .—Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 380, omitting the salt; stir in the sugar, add a little grated lemon-rind, nutmeg, or powdered cinnamon, and serve. Previously to making the melted butter, the milk can be flavoured with bitter almonds, by infusing about half a dozen of them in it for about 1/2 hour; the milk should then
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AN EXCELLENT WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
AN EXCELLENT WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
1362. INGREDIENTS.—The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt, 1/2 pint of sherry or Madeira. Mode .—Put the butter and flour into a saucepan, and stir them over the fire until the former thickens; then add the sugar, salt, and wine, and mix these ingredients well together. Separate the yolks from the whites of 4 eggs; beat up the former, and stir them briskly to the sauce; let it remain over the fire until it is on the po
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WINE OR BRANDY SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
WINE OR BRANDY SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
1363. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of melted butter No. 377, 3 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar; 1 large wineglassful of port or sherry, or 3/4 of a small glassful of brandy. Mode .—Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 377, omitting the salt; then stir in the sugar and wine or spirit in the above proportion, and bring the sauce to the point of boiling. Serve in a boat or tureen separately, and, if liked, pour a little of it over the pudding. To convert this into punch sauce, add to the sher
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WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.
1364. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of sherry, 1/4 pint of water, the yolks of 6 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, a few pieces of candied citron cut thin. Mode .—Separate the yolks from the whites of 5 eggs; beat them, and put them into a very clean saucepan (if at hand, a lined one is best); add all the other ingredients, place them over a sharp fire, and keep stirring until the sauce begins to thicken; then take it off and serve. If it is allowed to boil, it will be
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OPEN TART OF STRAWBERRY OR ANY OTHER KIND OF PRESERVE.
OPEN TART OF STRAWBERRY OR ANY OTHER KIND OF PRESERVE.
[Illustration: OPEN TART.] [Illustration: OPEN-TART MOULD.] 1365. INGREDIENTS.—Trimmings of puff-paste, any kind of jam. Mode .—Butter a tart-pan of the shape shown in the engraving, roll out the paste to the thickness of 1/2 an inch, and line the pan with it; prick a few holes at the bottom with a fork, and bake the tart in a brisk oven from 10 to 15 minutes. Let the paste cool a little; then fill it with preserve, place a few stars or leaves on it, which have been previously cut out of the pas
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QUICKLY-MADE PUDDINGS.
QUICKLY-MADE PUDDINGS.
1366. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of butter, 1/2 lb. of sifted sugar, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a little grated lemon-rind. Mode .—Make the milk hot; stir in the butter, and let it cool before the other ingredients are added to it; then stir in the sugar, flour, and eggs, which should be well whisked, and omit the whites of 2; flavour with a little grated lemon-rind, and beat the mixture well. Butter some small cups, rather more than half fill them; bake from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, acc
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SAGO PUDDING.
SAGO PUDDING.
1367. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sago, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, grated nutmeg, puff-paste. Mode .—Put the milk and lemon-rind into a stewpan, place it by the side of the fire, and let it remain until the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; then strain it, mix with it the sago and sugar, and simmer gently for about 15 minutes. Let the mixture cool a little, and stir to it the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the butter.
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BAKED SEMOLINA PUDDING.
BAKED SEMOLINA PUDDING.
1369. INGREDIENTS.—3 oz. of semolina, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 12 bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, 4 eggs. Mode .—Flavour the milk with the bitter almonds, by infusing them in it by the side of the fire for about 1/2 hour; then strain it, and mix with it the semolina, sugar, and butter. Stir these ingredients over the fire for a few minutes; then take them off, and gradually mix in the eggs, which should be well beaten. Butter a pie-dish, line the edges with puff-paste, put in the p
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ROLLED TREACLE PUDDING.
ROLLED TREACLE PUDDING.
1372. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1 lb. of treacle, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated ginger. Mode .—Make, with 1 lb. of flour, a suet crust by recipe No. 1215; roll it out to the thickness of 1/2 inch, and spread the treacle equally over it, leaving a small margin where the paste joins; close the ends securely, tie the pudding in a floured cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. We have inserted this pudding, being economical, and a favourite one with children; it is,
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MEAT OR SAUSAGE ROLLS.
MEAT OR SAUSAGE ROLLS.
1373. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, sausage-meat No. 837, the yolk of 1 egg. Mode .—Make 1 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch, or rather less, and divide it into 8, 10, or 12 squares, according to the size the rolls are intended to be. Place some sausage-meat on one-half of each square, wet the edges of the paste, and fold it over the meat; slightly press the edges together, and trim them neatly with a knife. Brush the rolls over wit
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SOMERSETSHIRE PUDDINGS.
SOMERSETSHIRE PUDDINGS.
1374. INGREDIENTS.—3 eggs, their weight in flour, pounded sugar and butter, flavouring of grated lemon-rind, bitter almonds, or essence of vanilla. Mode .—Carefully weigh the various ingredients, by placing on one side of the scales the eggs, and on the other the flour; then the sugar, and then the butter. Warm the butter, and with the hands beat it to a cream; gradually dredge in the flour and pounded sugar, and keep stirring and beating the mixture without ceasing until it is perfectly smooth.
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VERMICELLI PUDDING.
VERMICELLI PUDDING.
1377. INGREDIENTS.—4 oz. of vermicelli, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of cream, 3 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs. Mode .—Boil the vermicelli in the milk until it is tender; then stir in the remaining ingredients, omitting the cream, if not obtainable. Flavour the mixture with grated lemon-rind, essence of bitter almonds, or vanilla; butter a pie-dish; line the edges with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for about 3/4 hour. Time .—3/4 hour. Average cost , 1s. 2d.
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VICARAGE PUDDING.
VICARAGE PUDDING.
1378. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, 1/4 lb. of raisins, 1 tablespoonful of moist sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt. Mode .—Put all the ingredients into a basin, having previously stoned the raisins, and washed, picked, and dried the currants; mix well with a clean knife; dip the pudding-cloth into boiling water, wring it out, and put in the mixture. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, plunge in the pudding, and bo
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SWEET VOL-AU-VENT OF PLUMS, APPLES, OR ANY OTHER FRESH FRUIT.
SWEET VOL-AU-VENT OF PLUMS, APPLES, OR ANY OTHER FRESH FRUIT.
1380. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, about 1 pint of fruit compôte. Mode .—Make 1/2 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1208, taking care to bake it in a good brisk oven, to draw it up nicely and make it look light. Have ready sufficient stewed fruit, the syrup of which must be boiled down until very thick; fill the vol-au-vent with this, and pile it high in the centre; powder a little sugar over it, and put it back in the oven to glaze, or use a salamander for the purpose: the vol-au-
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VOL-AU-VENT OF FRESH STRAWBERRIES WITH WHIPPED CREAM.
VOL-AU-VENT OF FRESH STRAWBERRIES WITH WHIPPED CREAM.
1381. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, 1 pint of freshly-gathered strawberries, sugar to taste, a plateful of whipped cream. Mode .—Make a vol-au-vent case by recipe No. 1379, only not quite so large nor so high as for a savoury one. When nearly done, brush the paste over with the white of an egg, then sprinkle on it some pounded sugar, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze. Remove the interior, or soft crumb, and, at the moment of serving, fill it with the strawberries, which
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YEAST DUMPLINGS.
YEAST DUMPLINGS.
1383. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 quartern of dough, boiling water. Mode.—Make a very light dough as for bread, using to mix it, milk, instead of water; divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; plunge them into boiling water, and boil them for 20 minutes. Serve the instant they are taken up, as they spoil directly, by falling and becoming heavy; and in eating them do not touch them with a knife, but tear them apart with two forks. They may be eaten with meat gravy, or cold butter and sugar, and if not convenient t
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CHAPTER XXIX. BAKED APPLE CUSTARD.
CHAPTER XXIX. BAKED APPLE CUSTARD.
1389. INGREDIENTS.—1 dozen large apples, moist sugar to taste, 1 small teacupful of cold water, the grated rind of one lemon, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Peel, cut, and core the apples; put them into a lined saucepan with the cold water, and as they heat, bruise them to a pulp; sweeten with moist sugar, and add the grated lemon-rind. When cold, put the fruit at the bottom of a pie-dish, and pour over it a custard, made with the above proportion of milk, eggs, and sugar; g
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APPLE FRITTERS.
APPLE FRITTERS.
1393. INGREDIENTS.—For the batter, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, apples, hot lard or clarified beef-dripping. Mode .—Break the eggs; separate the whites from the yolks, and beat them separately. Put the flour into a basin, stir in the butter, which should be melted to a cream; add the salt, and moisten with sufficient warm milk to make it of a proper consistency, that is to say, a batter that will drop from the spoon. Stir this well, rub down any lu
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CLEAR APPLE JELLY.
CLEAR APPLE JELLY.
1396. INGREDIENTS.—2 dozen apples, 1-1/2 pint of spring-water; to every pint of juice allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar, 1/2 oz. of isinglass, the rind of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Pare, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and boil them, with the lemon-peel, until tender; then strain off the apples, and run the juice through a jelly-bag; put the strained juice, with the sugar and isinglass, which has been previously boiled in 1/2 pint of water, into a lined saucepan or preserving-pan; boil all together fo
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A PRETTY DISH OF APPLES AND RICE.
A PRETTY DISH OF APPLES AND RICE.
1397. INGREDIENTS.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of 1/2 lemon, sugar to taste, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 8 apples, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 1/4 pint of water, 1/2 pint of boiled custard No. 1423. Mode .—Flavour the milk with lemon-rind, by boiling them together for a few minutes; then take out the peel, and put in the rice, with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely, and boil gently until the rice is quite soft; then let it cool. In the mean time pare, quarter, and core the apples, and boil
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APPLES A LA PORTUGAISE.
APPLES A LA PORTUGAISE.
1398. INGREDIENTS.—8 good boiling apples, 1/2 pint of water, 6 oz. of sugar, a layer of apple marmalade No. 1395, 8 preserved cherries, garnishing of apricot jam. Mode .—Peel the apples, and, with a vegetable-cutter, push out the cores; boil them in the above proportion of sugar and water, without being too much done, and take care they do not break. Have ready a white apple marmalade, made by recipe No. 1395; cover the bottom of the dish with this, level it, and lay the apples in a sieve to dra
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APPLES IN RED JELLY.
APPLES IN RED JELLY.
( A pretty Supper Dish .) 1399. INGREDIENTS.—6 good-sized apples, 12 cloves, pounded sugar, 1 lemon, 2 teacupfuls of water, 1 tablespoonful of gelatine, a few drops of prepared cochineal. Mode .—Choose rather large apples; peel them and take out the cores, either with a scoop or a small silver knife, and put into each apple 2 cloves and as much sifted sugar as they will hold. Place them, without touching each other, in a large pie-dish; add more white sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, and 2 teacupful
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APPLES AND RICE.
APPLES AND RICE.
(A Plain Dish.) 1400. INGREDIENTS.—8 good sized apples, 3 oz. of butter, the rind of 1/2 lemon minced very fine, 6 oz. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 6 tablespoonfuls of apricot jam. Mode .—Peel the apples, halve them, and take out the cores; put them into a stewpan with the butter, and strew sufficient sifted sugar over to sweeten them nicely, and add the minced lemon-peel. Stew the apples very gently until tender, taking care they do not break. B
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APPLE SNOW.
APPLE SNOW.
( A pretty Supper Dish .) 1401. INGREDIENTS.—10 good-sized apples, the whites of 10 eggs, the rind of 1 lemon, 1/2 lb. of pounded sugar. Mode .—Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and put them into a saucepan with the lemon-peel and sufficient water to prevent them from burning,—rather less than 1/2 pint. When they are tender, take out the peel, beat them to a pulp, let them cool, and stir them to the whites of the eggs, which should be previously beaten to a strong froth. Add the sift
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APPLE SOUFFLE.
APPLE SOUFFLE.
1402. INGREDIENTS.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of 1/2 lemon, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs, the whites of 6, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of apple marmalade No. 1395. Mode .—Boil the milk with the lemon-peel until the former is well flavoured; then strain it, put in the rice, and let it gradually swell over a slow fire, adding sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. Then crush the rice to a smooth pulp with the back of a wooden spoon; line the bottom and sides of a rou
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STEWED APPLES AND CUSTARD.
STEWED APPLES AND CUSTARD.
( A pretty Dish for a Juvenile Supper .) 1403. INGREDIENTS.—7 good-sized apples, the rind of 1/2 lemon or 4 cloves, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 3/4 pint of water, 1/2 pint of custard No. 1423. Mode .—Pare and take out the cores of the apples, without dividing them, and, if possible, leave the stalks on; boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes; then put in the apples with the lemon-rind or cloves, whichever flavour may be preferred, and simmer gently until they are tender, taking care not to let t
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APPLE TRIFLE.
APPLE TRIFLE.
( A Supper Dish .) 1404. INGREDIENTS.—10 good-sized apples, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, 1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 eggs, whipped cream. Mode .—Peel, core, and cut the apples into thin slices, and put them into a saucepan with 2 tablespoonfuls of water, the sugar, and minced lemon-rind. Boil all together until quite tender, and pulp the apples through a sieve; if they should not be quite sweet enough, add a little more sugar, and put them at the bottom of the dish t
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APRICOT CREAM.
APRICOT CREAM.
1405. INGREDIENTS.—12 to 16 ripe apricots, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 1-1/2 pint of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 1 oz. of isinglass. Mode .—Divide the apricots, take out the stones, and boil them in a syrup made with 1/4 lb. of sugar and 1/4 pint of water, until they form a thin marmalade, which rub through a sieve. Boil the milk with the other 1/4 lb. of sugar, let it cool a little, then mix with it the yolks of eggs which have been previously well beaten; put this mixture into a jug, place this jug in bo
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ARROWROOT BLANC-MANGE.
ARROWROOT BLANC-MANGE.
( An inexpensive Supper Dish .) 1407. INGREDIENTS.—4 heaped tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 3 laurel-leaves or the rind of 1/2 lemon, sugar to taste. Mode .—Mix to a smooth batter the arrowroot with 1/2 pint of the milk; put the other pint on the fire, with laurel-leaves or lemon-peel, whichever may be preferred, and let the milk steep until it is well flavoured. Then strain the milk, and add it, boiling, to the mixed arrowroot; sweeten it with sifted sugar, and let it boil, sti
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BLANC-MANGE.
BLANC-MANGE.
( A Supper Dish .) 1408. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of new milk, 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 1/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 10 bitter almonds, 1/2 oz. of sweet almonds, 1 pint of cream. [Illustration: BLANC-MANGE MOULD.] Mode .—Put the milk into a saucepan, with the isinglass, lemon-rind, and sugar, and let these ingredients stand by the side of the fire until the milk is well flavoured; add the almonds, which should be blanched and pounded in a mortar to a paste, and let the milk just boil
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CHEAP BLANC-MANGE.
CHEAP BLANC-MANGE.
1409. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of sugar, 1 quart of milk, 1-1/2 oz. of isinglass, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 4 laurel-leaves. [Illustration: BLANC-MANGE.] Mode .—Put all the ingredients into a lined saucepan, and boil gently until the isinglass is dissolved; taste it occasionally, to ascertain when it is sufficiently flavoured with the laurel-leaves; then take them out, and keep stirring the mixture over the fire for about 10 minutes. Strain it through a fine sieve into a jug, and, when nearly cold, pou
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BREAD-AND-BUTTER FRITTERS.
BREAD-AND-BUTTER FRITTERS.
1410. INGREDIENTS.—Batter, 8 slices of bread and butter, 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of jam. Mode .—Make a batter, the same as for apple fritters No. 1393; cut some slices of bread and butter, not very thick; spread half of them with any jam that may he preferred, and cover with the other slices; slightly press them together, and cut them out in square, long, or round pieces. Dip them in the batter, and fry in boiling lard for about 10 minutes; drain them before the fire on a piece of blotting-paper o
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TO MAKE THE STOCK FOR JELLY, AND TO CLARIFY IT.
TO MAKE THE STOCK FOR JELLY, AND TO CLARIFY IT.
1411. INGREDIENTS.—2 calf's feet, 6 pints of water. [Illustration: JELLY-MOULD.] [Illustration: JELLY-BAG.] Mode .—The stock for jellies should always be made the day before it is required for use, as the liquor has time to cool, and the fat can be so much more easily and effectually removed when thoroughly set. Procure from the butcher's 2 nice calf's feet: scald them, to take off the hair; slit them in two, remove the fat from between the claws, and wash the feet well in warm water; put them i
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ISINGLASS OR GELATINE JELLY.
ISINGLASS OR GELATINE JELLY.
( Substitutes for Calf's Feet .) 1413. INGREDIENTS.—3 oz. of isinglass or gelatine, 2 quarts of water. Mode .—Put the isinglass or gelatine into a saucepan with the above proportion of cold water; bring it quickly to boil, and let it boil very fast, until the liquor is reduced one-half. Carefully remove the scum as it rises, then strain it through a jelly-bag, and it will be ready for use. If not required very clear, it may be merely strained through a fine sieve, instead of being run through a
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TO CLARIFY SYRUP FOR JELLIES.
TO CLARIFY SYRUP FOR JELLIES.
1415. INGREDIENTS.—To every quart of water allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar; the white of 1 egg. Mode .—Put the sugar and water into a stewpan; set it on the fire, and, when the sugar is dissolved, add the white of the egg, whipped up with a little water. Whisk the whole well together, and simmer very gently until it has thrown up all the scum. Take this off as it rises, strain the syrup through a fine sieve or cloth into a basin, and keep it for use....
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CALF'S-FEET JELLY.
CALF'S-FEET JELLY.
1416. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of calf's-feet stock No. 1411, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 1/2 pint of sherry, 1 glass of brandy, the shells and whites of 5 eggs, the rind and juice of 2 lemons, 1/2 oz. of isinglass. Mode .—Prepare the stock as directed in recipe No. 1411, taking care to leave the sediment, and to remove all the fat from the surface. Put it into a saucepan, cold, without clarifying it; add the remaining ingredients, and stir them well together before the saucepan is placed on the fire. Then si
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CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.
CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.
1418. INGREDIENTS.—A few slices of rather stale bread 1/2 inch thick, clarified butter, apple marmalade made by recipe No. 1395, with about 2 dozen apples, 1/2 glass of sherry. [Illustration: CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.] Mode .—Cut a slice of bread the same shape as the bottom of a plain round mould, which has been well buttered, and a few strips the height of the mould, and about 1-1/2 inch wide; dip the bread in clarified butter (or spread it with cold butter, if not wanted quite so rich); place the
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AN EASY METHOD OF MAKING A CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.
AN EASY METHOD OF MAKING A CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.
1419. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of powdered sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of baking-powder, 1 egg, milk, 1 glass of raisin-wine, apple marmalade No. 1395, 1/4 pint of cream, 2 dessertspoonfuls of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice. Mode .—Make a cake with the flour, butter, sugar, and baking-powder; moisten with the egg and sufficient milk to make it the proper consistency, and bake it in a round tin. When cold, scoop out the middle, leaving a good thickness
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A VERY SIMPLE APPLE CHARLOTTE.
A VERY SIMPLE APPLE CHARLOTTE.
1420. INGREDIENTS.—9 slices of bread and butter, about 6 good-sized apples, 1 tablespoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of juice, moist sugar to taste. Mode .—Butter a pie-dish; place a layer of bread and butter, without the crust, at the bottom; then a layer of apples, pared, cored, and cut into thin slices; sprinkle over these a portion of the lemon-peel and juice, and sweeten with moist sugar. Place another layer of bread and butter, and then one of apples, proceeding in this manne
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CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
( An Elegant Sweet Entremets .) 1421. INGREDIENTS.—About 18 Savoy biscuits, 3/4 pint of cream, flavouring of vanilla, liqueurs, or wine, 1 tablespoonful of pounded sugar, 1/2 oz. of isinglass. Mode .—Procure about 18 Savoy biscuits, or ladies'-fingers, as they are sometimes called; brush the edges of them with the white of an egg, and line the bottom of a plain round mould, placing them like a star or rosette. Stand them upright all round the edge; carefully put them so closely together that the
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CREAM A LA VALOIS.
CREAM A LA VALOIS.
1422. INGREDIENTS.—4 sponge-cakes, jam, 3/4 pint of cream, sugar to taste, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 1/4 glass of sherry, 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass. Mode .—Cut the sponge-cakes into thin slices; place two together, with preserve between them, and pour over them a small quantity of sherry mixed with a little brandy. Sweeten and flavour the cream with the lemon-juice and sherry; add the isinglass, which should be dissolved in a little water, and beat up the cream well. Place a little in an oiled mould;
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BOILED CUSTARDS.
BOILED CUSTARDS.
1423. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, 3 oz. of loaf sugar, 3 laurel-leaves, or the rind of 4 lemon, or a few drops of essence of vanilla, 1 tablespoonful of brandy. [Illustration: CUSTARDS IN GLASSES.] Mode .—Put the milk into a lined saucepan, with the sugar, and whichever of the above flavourings may be preferred (the lemon-rind flavours custards most deliciously), and let the milk steep by the side of the fire until it is well flavoured. Bring it to the point of boiling, then strain it i
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GINGER APPLES.
GINGER APPLES.
( A pretty Supper or Dessert Dish .) 1424. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 oz. of whole ginger, 1/4 pint of whiskey, 3 lbs. of apples, 2 lbs. of white sugar, the juice of 2 lemons. Mode .—Bruise the ginger, put it into a small jar, pour over sufficient whiskey to cover it, and let it remain for 3 days; then cut the apples into thin slices, after paring and coring them; add the sugar and the lemon-juice, which should he strained; and simmer all together very gently until the apples are transparent, but not br
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FRENCH PANCAKES.
FRENCH PANCAKES.
1425. INGREDIENTS.—2 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of sifted sugar, 2 oz. of flour, 1/2 pint of new milk. Mode .—Beat the eggs thoroughly, and put them into a basin with the butter, which should be beaten to a cream; stir in the sugar and flour, and when these ingredients are well mixed, add the milk; keep stirring and beating the mixture for a few minutes; put it on buttered plates, and bake in a quick oven for 20 minutes. Serve with a cut lemon and sifted sugar, or pile the pancakes high on a d
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DUTCH FLUMMERY.
DUTCH FLUMMERY.
1426. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 oz. of isinglass, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 pint of water, 4 eggs, 1 pint of sherry, Madeira, or raisin-wine; sifted sugar to taste. Mode .—Put the water, isinglass, and lemon-rind into a lined saucepan, and simmer gently until the isinglass is dissolved; strain this into a basin, stir in the eggs, which should be well beaten, the lemon-juice, which should be strained, and the wine; sweeten to taste with pounded sugar, mix all well together, pour it into a jug, se
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DARIOLES A LA VANILLE.
DARIOLES A LA VANILLE.
( Sweet Entremets .) 1428. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 oz. of flour, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 6 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, puff-paste, flavouring of essence of vanilla. Mode .—Mix the flour to a smooth batter, with the milk; stir in the cream, sugar, the eggs, which should be well whisked, and the butter, which should be beaten to a cream. Put in some essence of vanilla, drop by drop, until the mixture is well flavoured; line some dariole-moulds with puff-paste, three-parts fi
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CURRANT FRITTERS.
CURRANT FRITTERS.
1429. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of boiled rice, 3 tablespoonfuls of currants, sugar to taste, a very little grated nutmeg, hot lard or clarified dripping. Mode .—Put the milk into a basin with the flour, which should previously be rubbed to a smooth batter with a little cold milk; stir these ingredients together; add the well-whisked eggs, the rice, currants, sugar, and nutmeg. Beat the mixture for a few minutes, and, if not sufficiently t
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CHOCOLATE CREAM.
CHOCOLATE CREAM.
1430. INGREDIENTS.—3 oz. of grated chocolate, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 1-1/2 pint of cream, 1/2 oz. of clarified isinglass, the yolks of 6 eggs. [Illustration: CREAM-MOULD.] Mode .—Beat the yolks of the eggs well; put them into a basin with the grated chocolate, the sugar, and 1 pint of the cream; stir these ingredients well together, pour them into a jug, and set this jug in a saucepan of boiling water; stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil , or it will curdle. Strain
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GENEVA WAFERS.
GENEVA WAFERS.
1431. INGREDIENTS.—2 eggs, 3 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of flour, 3 oz. of pounded sugar. Mode .—Well whisk the eggs; put them into a basin, and stir to them the butter, which should be beaten to a cream; add the flour and sifted sugar gradually, and then mix all well together. Butter a baking-sheet, and drop on it a teaspoonful of the mixture at a time, leaving a space between each. Bake in a cool oven; watch the pieces of paste, and, when half done, roll them up like wafers, and put in a small wedge
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GINGER CREAM.
GINGER CREAM.
1432. INGREDIENTS.—The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 pint of cream, 3 oz. of preserved ginger, 2 dessertspoonfuls of syrup, sifted sugar to taste, 1 oz. of isinglass. Mode .—Slice the ginger finely; put it into a basin with the syrup, the well-beaten yolks of eggs, and the cream; mix these ingredients well together, and stir them over the fire for about 10 minutes, or until the mixture thickens; then take it off the fire, whisk till nearly cold, sweeten to taste, add the isinglass, which should be melted a
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GOOSEBERRY TRIFLE.
GOOSEBERRY TRIFLE.
1434. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of gooseberries, sugar to taste, 1 pint of custard No. 1423, a plateful of whipped cream. Mode .—Put the gooseberries into a jar, with sufficient moist sugar to sweeten them, and boil them until reduced to a pulp. Put this pulp at the bottom of a trifle-dish; pour over it a pint of custard made by recipe No. 1423, and, when cold, cover with whipped cream. The cream should be whipped the day before it is wanted for table, as it will then be so much firmer and more solid
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INDIAN FRITTERS.
INDIAN FRITTERS.
1435. INGREDIENTS.—3 tablespoonfuls of flour, boiling water, the yolks of 4 eggs, the whites of 2, hot lard or clarified dripping, jam. Mode .—Put the flour into a basin, and pour over it sufficient boiling water to make it into a stiff paste, taking care to stir and beat it well, to prevent it getting lumpy. Leave it a little time to cool, and then break into it ( without beating them at first ) the yolks of 4 eggs and the whites of 2, and stir and beat all well together. Have ready some boilin
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INDIAN TRIFLE.
INDIAN TRIFLE.
1436. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of milk, the rind of 1/2 large lemon, sugar to taste, 5 heaped tablespoonfuls of rice-flour, 1 oz. of sweet almonds, 1/2 pint of custard. Mode .—Boil the milk and lemon-rind together until the former is well flavoured; take out the lemon-rind and stir in the rice-flour, which should first be moistened with cold milk, and add sufficient loaf sugar to sweeten it nicely. Boil gently for about 5 minutes, and keep the mixture stirred; take it off the fire, let it cool a lit
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THE HIDDEN MOUNTAIN.
THE HIDDEN MOUNTAIN.
( A pretty Supper Dish .) 1438. INGREDIENTS.—6 eggs, a few slices of citron, sugar to taste, 1/4 pint of cream, a layer of any kind of jam. Mode .—Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs separately; then mix them and beat well again, adding a few thin slices of citron, the cream, and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten it nicely. When the mixture is well beaten, put it into a buttered pan, and fry the same as a pancake; but it should be three times the thickness of an ordinary pancake. Cover it wi
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JAUNEMANGE.
JAUNEMANGE.
1439. INGREDIENTS.—1 oz. of isinglass, 1 pint of water, 1/2 pint of white wine, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon, sugar to taste, the yolks of 6 eggs. Mode .—Put the isinglass, water, and lemon-rind into a saucepan, and boil gently until the former is dissolved; then add the strained lemon-juice, the wine, and sufficient white sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Boil for 2 or 3 minutes, strain the mixture into a jug, and add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well beaten; place the jug in
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JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.
JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.
1441. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of calf's-feet jelly No. 1416, a few drops of prepared cochineal. [Illustration: JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.] Mode .—Make 1-1/2 pint of jelly by recipe No. 1416, or, if wished more economical, of clarified syrup and gelatine, flavouring it in any way that may be preferred. Colour one-half of the jelly with a few drops of prepared cochineal, and the other half leave as pale as possible. Have ready a mould well wetted in every part; pour in a small quantity of the red jelly
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LEMON BLANCMANGE.
LEMON BLANCMANGE.
1442. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of milk, the yolks of 4 eggs, 3 oz. of ground rice, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, 1-1/2 oz. of fresh butter, the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 2, 1/2 oz. of gelatine. [Illustration: BLANCMANGE MOULD.] Mode .—Make a custard with the yolks of the eggs and 1/2 pint of the milk, and, when done, put it into a basin: put half the remainder of the milk into a saucepan with the ground rice, fresh butter, lemon-rind, and 3 oz. of the sugar, and let these ingredients boil until the mi
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LEMON CREAM.
LEMON CREAM.
1443. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1/4 lb. of white sugar, 1 large lemon, 1 oz. of isinglass. [Illustration: LEMON-CREAM MOULD.] Mode .—Put the cream into a lined saucepan with the sugar, lemon-peel, and isinglass, and simmer these over a gentle fire for about 10 minutes, stirring them all the time. Strain the cream into a jug, add the yolks of eggs, which should be well beaten, and put the jug into a saucepan of boiling water; stir the mixture one way until it thickens, bu
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ECONOMICAL LEMON CREAM.
ECONOMICAL LEMON CREAM.
1444. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of milk, 8 bitter almonds, 2 oz. of gelatine, 2 large lemons, 3/4 lb. of lump sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs. Mode .—Put the milk into a lined saucepan with the almonds, which should be well pounded in a mortar, the gelatine, lemon-rind, and lump sugar, and boil these ingredients for about 5 minutes. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, strain the milk into a jug, add the eggs, and pour the mixture backwards and forwards a few times, until nearly cold; then stir briskly to it th
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LEMON CREAMS.
LEMON CREAMS.
( Very good .) 1445. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of cream, 2 dozen sweet almonds, 3 glasses of sherry, the rind and juice of 2 lemons, sugar to taste. Mode .—Blanch and chop the almonds, and put them into a jug with the cream; in another jug put the sherry, lemon-rind, strained juice, and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Pour rapidly from one jug to the other till the mixture is well frothed; then, pour it into jelly-glasses, omitting the lemon-rind. This is a very cool and deliciou
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LEMON CREAMS OF CUSTARDS.
LEMON CREAMS OF CUSTARDS.
1446. INGREDIENTS.—5 oz. of loaf sugar, 2 pints of boiling water, the rind of 1 lemon and the juice of 3, the yolks of 8 eggs. Mode .—Make a quart of lemonade in the following manner:—Dissolve the sugar in the boiling water, having previously, with part of the sugar, rubbed off the lemon-rind, and add the strained juice. Strain the lemonade into a saucepan, and add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well beaten; stir this one way over the fire until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it
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LEMON JELLY.
LEMON JELLY.
1447. INGREDIENTS.—6 lemons, 3/4 lb. of lump sugar, 1 pint of water, 1-1/2 oz. of isinglass, 1/4 pint of sherry. Mode .—Peel 3 of the lemons, pour 1/2 pint of boiling water on the rind, and let it infuse for 1/2 hour; put the sugar, isinglass, and 1/2 pint of water into a lined saucepan, and boil these ingredients for 20 minutes; then put in the strained lemon-juice, the strained infusion of the rind, and bring the whole to the point of boiling; skim well, add the wine, and run the jelly through
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LEMON SPONGE.
LEMON SPONGE.
1448. INGREDIENTS.—2 oz. of isinglass, 1-3/4 pint of water, 3/4 lb. of pounded sugar, the juice of 5 lemons, the rind of 1, the whites of 3 eggs. Mode .—Dissolve the isinglass in the water, strain it into a saucepan, and add the sugar, lemon-rind, and juice. Boil the whole from 10 to 15 minutes; strain it again, and let it stand till it is cold and begins to stiffen. Beat the whites of the eggs, put them to it, and whisk the mixture till it is quite white; put it into a mould which has been prev
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LIQUEUR JELLY.
LIQUEUR JELLY.
1449. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of lump sugar, 2 oz. of isinglass, 1-1/2 pint of water, the juice of 2 lemons, 1/4 pint of liqueur. [Illustration: OVAL JELLY-MOULD.] Mode .—Put the sugar, with 1 pint of the water, into a stewpan, and boil them gently by the side of the fire until there is no scum remaining, which must be carefully removed as fast as it rises. Boil the isinglass with the other 1/2 pint of water, and skim it carefully in the same manner. Strain the lemon-juice, and add it, with the clari
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A SWEET DISH OF MACARONI.
A SWEET DISH OF MACARONI.
1450. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of macaroni, 1-1/2 pint of milk, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 3 oz. of lump sugar, 3/4 pint of custard No. 1423. Mode .—Put the milk into a saucepan, with the lemon-peel and sugar; bring it to the boiling-point, drop in the macaroni, and let it gradually swell over a gentle fire, but do not allow the pipes to break. The form should be entirely preserved; and, though tender, should be firm, and not soft, with no part beginning to melt. Should the milk dry away before the maca
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MERINGUES.
MERINGUES.
1451. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of pounded sugar, the whites of 4 eggs. [Illustration: MERINGUES.] Mode .—Whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and, with a wooden spoon, stir in quickly the pounded sugar; and have some boards thick enough to put in the oven to prevent the bottom of the meringues from acquiring too much colour. Cut some strips of paper about 2 inches wide; place this paper on the board, and drop a tablespoonful at a time of the mixture on the paper, taking care to let all the
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NOYEAU CREAM.
NOYEAU CREAM.
1452. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 oz. of isinglass, the juice of 2 lemons, noyeau and pounded sugar to taste, 1-1/2 pint of cream. Mode .—Dissolve the isinglass in a little boiling water, add the lemon-juice, and strain this to the cream, putting in sufficient noyeau and sugar to flavour and sweeten the mixture nicely; whisk the cream well, put it into an oiled mould, and set the mould in ice or in a cool place; turn it out, and garnish the dish to taste. Time .—Altogether, 1/2 hour. Average cost , with
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OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.
OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.
( A very pretty dish .) 1453. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of jelly, 1/2 pint of cream, 1 glass of sherry, sugar to taste. [Illustration: OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.] Mode .—Make the above proportion of calf's-feet or isinglass jelly, colouring and flavouring it in any way that may be preferred; soak a mould, open in the centre, for about 1/2 hour in cold water; fill it with the jelly, and let it remain in a cool place until perfectly set; then turn it out on a dish; fill the centre with whipped c
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ORANGE JELLY.
ORANGE JELLY.
1454. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of water, 1-1/2 to 2 oz. of isinglass, 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 Seville orange, 1 lemon, about 9 China oranges. [Illustration: OPEN MOULD.] Mode .—Put the water into a saucepan, with the isinglass, sugar, and the rind of 1 orange, and the same of 1/2 lemon, and stir these over the fire until the isinglass is dissolved, and remove the scum; then add to this the juice of the Seville orange, the juice of the lemon, and sufficient juice of China oranges to make in all 1 pin
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ORANGE JELLY MOULDED WITH SLICES OF ORANGE.
ORANGE JELLY MOULDED WITH SLICES OF ORANGE.
1455. INGREDIENTS.—1-1/2 pint of orange jelly No. 1454, 4 oranges, 1 pint of clarified syrup. Mode .—Boil 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar with 1/2 pint of water until there is no scum left (which must be carefully removed as fast as it rises), and carefully peel the oranges; divide them into thin slices, without breaking the thin skin, and put these pieces of orange into the syrup, where let them remain for about 5 minutes; then take them out, and use the syrup for the jelly, which should be made by recip
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TO MAKE A PLAIN OMELET.
TO MAKE A PLAIN OMELET.
1456. INGREDIENTS.—6 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1/3 saltspoonful of pepper, 1/4 lb. of butter. [Illustration: OMELET.] Mode .—Break the eggs into a basin, omitting the whites of 3, and beat them up with the salt and pepper until extremely light; then add 2 oz. of the butter broken into small pieces, and stir this into the mixture. Put the other 2 oz. of butter into a frying-pan, make it quite hot, and, as soon as it begins to bubble, whisk the eggs, &c. very briskly for a minute or tw
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TO MAKE A PLAIN SWEET OMELET.
TO MAKE A PLAIN SWEET OMELET.
1459. INGREDIENTS.—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of sifted sugar. Mode .—Break the eggs into a basin, omitting the whites of 3; whisk them well, adding the sugar and 2 oz. of the butter, which should be broken into small pieces, and stir all these ingredients well together. Make the remainder of the butter quite hot in a small frying-pan, and when it commences to bubble, pour in the eggs, &c. Keep stirring them until they begin to set; then turn the edges of the omelet over, to make it
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OMELETTE SOUFFLÉ.
OMELETTE SOUFFLÉ.
1461. INGREDIENTS.—6 eggs, 5 oz. of pounded sugar, flavouring of vanilla, orange-flower water, or lemon-rind, 3 oz. of butter, 1 dessert-spoonful of rice-flour. Mode .—Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs, add to the former the sugar, the rice-flour, and either of the above flavourings that may be preferred, and stir these ingredients well together. Whip the whites of the eggs, mix them lightly with the batter, and put the butter into a small frying-pan. As soon as it begins to bubble,
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BACHELOR'S OMELET.
BACHELOR'S OMELET.
1462. INGREDIENTS.—2 or 3 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1/2 teacupful of milk. Mode .—Make a thin cream of the flour and milk; then beat up the eggs, mix all together, and add a pinch of salt and a few grains of cayenne. Melt the butter in a small frying-pan, and, when very hot, pour in the batter. Let the pan remain for a few minutes over a clear fire; then sprinkle upon the omelet some chopped herbs and a few shreds of onion; double the omelet dexterously, and shake it out of
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ORANGE CREAM.
ORANGE CREAM.
1463. INGREDIENTS.—1 oz. of isinglass, 6 large oranges, 1 lemon, sugar to taste, water, 1/2 pint of good cream. [Illustration: OPEN MOULD.] Mode .—Squeeze the juice from the oranges and lemon; strain it, and put it into a saucepan with the isinglass, and sufficient water to make in all 1-1/2 pint. Rub the sugar on the orange and lemon-rind, add it to the other ingredients, and boil all together for about 10 minutes. Strain through a muslin bag, and, when cold, beat up with it 1/2 pint of thick c
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ORANGE CREAMS.
ORANGE CREAMS.
1464. INGREDIENTS.—1 Seville orange, 1 tablespoonful of brandy, 1/4 lb. of loaf sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 pint of cream. Mode .—Boil the rind of the Seville orange until tender, and beat it in a mortar to a pulp; add to it the brandy, the strained juice of the orange, and the sugar, and beat all together for about 10 minutes, adding the well-beaten yolks of eggs. Bring the cream to the boiling-point, and pour it very gradually to the other ingredients, and beat the mixture till nearly cold;
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A PRETTY DISH OF ORANGES.
A PRETTY DISH OF ORANGES.
1466. INGREDIENTS.—6 large oranges, 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar, 1/4 pint of water, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of any kind of liqueur, sugar to taste. Mode .—Put the sugar and water into a saucepan, and boil them until the sugar becomes brittle, which may be ascertained by taking up a small quantity in a spoon, and dipping it in cold water; if the sugar is sufficiently boiled, it will easily snap. Peel the oranges, remove as much of the white pith as possible, and divide them into nice-sized
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TO MAKE PANCAKES.
TO MAKE PANCAKES.
1467. INGREDIENTS.—Eggs, flour, milk; to every egg allow 1 oz. of flour, about 1 gill of milk, 1/8 saltspoonful of salt. [Illustration: PANCAKES.] Mode .—Ascertain that the eggs are fresh; break each one separately in a cup; whisk them well, put them into a basin, with the flour, salt, and a few drops of milk, and beat the whole to a perfectly smooth batter; then add by degrees the remainder of the milk. The proportion of this latter ingredient must be regulated by the size of the eggs, &amp
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RICHER PANCAKES.
RICHER PANCAKES.
1468. INGREDIENTS.—6 eggs, 1 pint of cream, 1/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 glass of sherry, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, flour. Mode .—Ascertain that the eggs are extremely fresh, beat them well, strain and mix with them the cream, pounded sugar, wine, nutmeg, and as much flour as will make the batter nearly as thick as that for ordinary pancakes. Make the frying-pan hot, wipe it with a clean cloth, pour in sufficient batter to make a thin pancake, and fry it for about 5 minutes. Dish the pancake
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PEACH FRITTERS.
PEACH FRITTERS.
1469. INGREDIENTS.—For the batter: 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk;—peaches, hot lard or clarified dripping. Mode .—Make a nice smooth, batter in the same manner as directed in recipe No. 1393, and skin, halve, and stone the peaches, which should be quite ripe; dip them in the batter, and fry the pieces in hot lard or clarified dripping, which should be brought to the boiling-point before the peaches are put in. From 8 to 10 minutes will be required to
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MOULDED PEARS.
MOULDED PEARS.
1471. INGREDIENTS.—4 large pears or 6 small ones, 8 cloves, sugar to taste, water, a small piece of cinnamon, 1/4 pint of raisin wine, a strip of lemon-peel, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 1/2 oz. of gelatine. Mode .—Peel and cut the pears into quarters; put them into a jar with 3/4 pint of water, cloves, cinnamon, and sufficient sugar to sweeten the whole nicely; cover down the top of the jar, and bake the pears in a gentle oven until perfectly tender, but do not allow them to break. When done, lay th
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PINEAPPLE FRITTERS.
PINEAPPLE FRITTERS.
( An elegant Dish .) 1472. INGREDIENTS.—A small pineapple, a small wineglassful of brandy or liqueur, 2 oz. of sifted sugar; batter as for apple fritters No. 1393. Mode .—This elegant dish, although it may appear extravagant, is really not so if made when pineapples are plentiful. We receive them now in such large quantities from the West Indies, that at times they may be purchased at an exceedingly low rate: it would not, of course, be economical to use the pines which are grown in our English
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POTATO FRITTERS.
POTATO FRITTERS.
1474. INGREDIENTS.—2 large potatoes, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 2 ditto of raisin or sweet wine, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, 4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, hot lard. [Illustration: SCROLL FRITTER-MOULD.] Mode .—Boil the potatoes, and beat them up lightly with a fork, but do not use a spoon, as that would make them heavy. Beat the eggs well, leaving out one of the whites; add the other ingredients, and beat all together for at least 20 minutes, or until the batter is extremely ligh
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RASPBERRY CREAM.
RASPBERRY CREAM.
1475. INGREDIENTS.—3/4 pint of milk, 3/4 pint of cream, 1-1/2 oz. of isinglass, raspberry jelly, sugar to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy. [Illustration: RASPBERRY CREAM MOULD.] Mode .—Boil the milk, cream, and isinglass together for 1/4 hour, or until the latter is melted, and strain it through a hair sieve into a basin. Let it cool a little; then add to it sufficient raspberry jelly, which, when melted, would make 1/3 pint, and stir well till the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. If not suff
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RICE BLANCMANGE.
RICE BLANCMANGE.
1476. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of ground rice, 3 oz. of loaf sugar, 1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 quart of milk, flavouring of lemon-peel, essence of almonds or vanilla, or laurel-leaves. Mode .—Mix the rice to a smooth batter with about 1/2 pint of the milk, and the remainder put into a saucepan, with the sugar, butter, and whichever of the above flavourings may be preferred; bring the milk to the boiling-point, quickly stir in the rice, and let it boil for about 10 minutes, or until it comes easily awa
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RICE CROQUETTES.
RICE CROQUETTES.
1477. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, flavouring of vanilla, lemon-peel, or bitter almonds, egg and bread crumbs, hot lard. Mode .—Put the rice, milk, and sugar into a saucepan, and let the former gradually swell over a gentle fire until all the milk is dried up; and just before the rice is done, stir in a few drops of essence of any of the above flavourings. Let the rice get cold; then form it into small round balls, dip them into yolk of egg, sprinkle the
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RICE FRITTERS.
RICE FRITTERS.
1478. INGREDIENTS.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 3 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of fresh butter 6 oz. of orange marmalade, 4 eggs. Mode .—Swell the rice in the milk, with the sugar and butter, over a slow fire until it is perfectly tender, which will be in about 3/4 hour. When the rice is done, strain away the milk, should there be any left, and mix with it the marmalade and well-beaten eggs; stir the whole over the fire until the eggs are set; then spread the mixture on a dish to the thickness of abou
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RICE SOUFFLE.
RICE SOUFFLE.
1480. INGREDIENTS.—3 tablespoonfuls of ground rice, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, pounded sugar to taste, flavouring of lemon-rind, vanilla, coffee, chocolate, or anything that may be preferred, a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Mode .—Mix the ground rice with 6 tablespoonfuls of the milk quite smoothly, and put it into a saucepan with the remainder of the milk and butter, and keep stirring it over the fire for about 1/4 hour, or until the mixture thickens. Separate the yolks from the whites of
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TO MAKE A SOUFFLE.
TO MAKE A SOUFFLE.
1481. INGREDIENTS.—3 heaped tablespoonfuls of potato-flour, rice-flour, arrowroot, or tapioca, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, sifted sugar to taste, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt flavouring. Mode .—Mix the potato-flour, or whichever one of the above ingredients is used, with a little of the milk; put it into a saucepan, with the remainder of the milk, the butter, salt, and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Stir these ingredients over the fire until
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STONE CREAM OF TOUS LES MOIS.
STONE CREAM OF TOUS LES MOIS.
1483. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 lb. of preserve, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of lump sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful of tous les mois, 3 drops of essence of cloves, 3 drops of almond-flavouring. Mode .—Place the preserve at the bottom of a glass dish; put the milk into a lined saucepan, with the sugar, and make it boil. Mix to a smooth batter the tous les mois, with a very little cold milk; stir it briskly into the boiling milk, add the flavouring, and simmer for 2 minutes. When rather cool, but before turning s
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STRAWBERRY JELLY.
STRAWBERRY JELLY.
1484. INGREDIENTS.—Strawberries, pounded sugar; to every pint of juice allow 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass. Mode .—Pick the strawberries, put them into a pan, squeeze them well with a wooden spoon, add sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten them nicely, and let them remain for 1 hour, that the juice may be extracted; then add 1/2 pint of water to every pint of juice. Strain the strawberry-juice and water through a bag; measure it, and to every pint allow 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass, melted and clarified in 1/4
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SWISS CREAM.
SWISS CREAM.
1485. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of macaroons or 6 small sponge-cakes, sherry, 1 pint of cream, 5 oz. of lump sugar, 2 large tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 3 tablespoonfuls of milk. Mode .—Lay the macaroons or sponge-cakes in a glass dish, and pour over them as much sherry as will cover them, or sufficient to soak them well. Put the cream into a lined saucepan, with the sugar and lemon-rind, and let it remain by the side of the fire until the cream is well fl
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TO MAKE SYLLABUB.
TO MAKE SYLLABUB.
1486. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of sherry or white wine, 1/2 grated nutmeg, sugar to taste, 1-1/2 pint of milk. Mode .—Put the wine into a bowl, with the grated nutmeg and plenty of pounded sugar, and milk into it the above proportion of milk frothed up. Clouted cream may be laid on the top, with pounded cinnamon or nutmeg and sugar; and a little brandy may be added to the wine before the milk is put in. In some counties, cider is substituted for the wine: when this is used, brandy must always be adde
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TIPSY CAKE.
TIPSY CAKE.
1487. INGREDIENTS.—1 moulded sponge-or Savoy-cake, sufficient sweet wine or sherry to soak it, 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 1 pint of rich custard. [Illustration: TIPSY CAKE.] Mode .—Procure a cake that is three or four days old,—either sponge, Savoy, or rice answering for the purpose of a tipsy cake. Cut the bottom of the cake level, to make it stand firm in the dish; make a small hole in the centre, and pour in and over the cake sufficient sweet wine or sherry, mixed wit
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TO MAKE A TRIFLE.
TO MAKE A TRIFLE.
1489. INGREDIENTS.—For the whip, 1 pint of cream, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, the whites of 2 eggs, a small glass of sherry or raisin wine. For the trifle, 1 pint of custard, made with 8 eggs to a pint of milk; 6 small sponge-cakes, or 6 slices of sponge-cake; 12 macaroons, 2 dozen ratafias, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, the grated rind of 1 lemon, a layer of raspberry or strawberry jam, 1/2 pint of sherry or sweet wine, 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy. [Illustration: TRIFLE.] Mode .—The whip to lay over the t
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VANILLA CREAM.
VANILLA CREAM.
1490. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of isinglass, flavouring to taste of essence of vanilla. [Illustration: VANILLA-CREAM MOULD.] Mode .—Put the milk and sugar into a saucepan, and let it get hot over a slow fire; beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add gradually the sweetened milk; flavour the whole with essence of vanilla, put the mixture into a jug, and place this jug in a saucepan of boiling water. Stir the contents with a wooden spoon one way un
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WHIPPED SYLLABUBS.
WHIPPED SYLLABUBS.
1493. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of cream, 1/4 pint of sherry, half that quantity of brandy, the juice of 1/2 lemon, a little grated nutmeg, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, whipped cream the same as for trifle No. 1489. Mode .—Mix all the ingredients together, put the syllabub into glasses, and over the top of them heap a little whipped cream, made in the same manner as for trifle No. 1489. Solid syllabub is made by whisking or milling the mixture to a stiff froth, and putting it in the glasses, without the
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THE CURE'S OMELET.
THE CURE'S OMELET.
"Every one knows," says Brillat Savarin, in his "Physiology of Taste," "that for twenty years Madame Récamier was the most beautiful woman in Paris. It is also well known that she was exceedingly charitable, and took a great interest in every benevolent work. Wishing to consult the Curé of —— respecting the working of an institution, she went to his house at five o'clock in the afternoon, and was much astonished at finding him already at his dinner-table. "Madame Récamier wished to retire, but t
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PRESERVES, CONFECTIONARY, ICES, AND DESSERT DISHES. PRESERVES.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PRESERVES, CONFECTIONARY, ICES, AND DESSERT DISHES. PRESERVES.
1495. From the nature of vegetable substances, and chiefly from their not passing so rapidly into the putrescent state as animal bodies, the mode of preserving them is somewhat different, although the general principles are the same. All the means of preservation are put in practice occasionally for fruits and the various parts of vegetables, according to the nature of the species, the climate, the uses to which they are applied, &c. Some are dried, as nuts, raisins, sweet herbs, &am
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CONFECTIONARY.
CONFECTIONARY.
1508. In speaking of confectionary, it should be remarked that all the various preparations above named come, strictly speaking, under that head; for the various fruits, flowers, herbs, roots, and juices, which, when boiled with sugar, were formerly employed in pharmacy as well as for sweetmeats, were called confections , from the Latin word conficere , 'to make up;' but the term confectionary embraces a very large class indeed of sweet food, many kinds of which should not be attempted in the or
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DESSERT DISHES.
DESSERT DISHES.
1509. With moderns the dessert is not so profuse, nor does it hold the same relationship to the dinner that it held with the ancients,—the Romans more especially. On ivory tables they would spread hundreds of different kinds of raw, cooked, and preserved fruits, tarts and cakes, as substitutes for the more substantial comestibles with which the guests were satiated. However, as late as the reigns of our two last Georges, fabulous sums were often expended upon fanciful desserts. The dessert certa
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ICES.
ICES.
510. Ices are composed, it is scarcely necessary to say, of congealed cream or water, combined sometimes with liqueurs or other flavouring ingredients, or more generally with the juices of fruits. At desserts, or at some evening parties, ices are scarcely to be dispensed with. The principal utensils required for making ice-creams are ice-tubs, freezing-pots, spaddles, and a cellaret. The tub must be large enough to contain about a bushel of ice, pounded small, when brought out of the ice-house,
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CHAPTER XXXI.
CHAPTER XXXI.
TO MAKE SYRUP FOR COMPOTES, &c. 1512. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of sugar allow 1-1/2 pint of water. Mode .—Boil the sugar and water together for 1/4 hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises: the syrup is then ready for the fruit. The articles boiled in this syrup will not keep for any length of time, it being suitable only for dishes intended to be eaten immediately. A larger proportion of sugar must be added for a syrup intended to keep. Time .—1/4 hour....
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TO CLARIFY SUGAR OR SYRUP.
TO CLARIFY SUGAR OR SYRUP.
1513. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water and 1/2 the white of an egg. Mode .—Put the sugar, water, and the white of the egg, which should, be well beaten, into a preserving-pan or lined saucepan; and do not put it on the fire till the sugar is dissolved. Then place it on the fire, and when it boils, throw in a teacupful of cold water, and do not stir the sugar after this is added. Bring it to the boiling-point again, and then place the pan by the side of the fire, for the
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TO BOIL SUGAR TO CARAMEL.
TO BOIL SUGAR TO CARAMEL.
1514. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of lump sugar allow 1 gill of spring water. Mode .—Boil the sugar and water together very quickly over a clear fire, skimming it very carefully as soon as it boils. Keep it boiling until the sugar snaps when a little of it is dropped in a pan of cold water. If it remains hard, the sugar has attained the right degree; then squeeze in a little lemon-juice, and let it remain an instant on the fire. Set the pan into another of cold water, and the caramel is then ready
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COMPOTE OF APPLES.
COMPOTE OF APPLES.
(Soyer's Recipe,—a Dessert Dish.) 1515. INGREDIENTS.—6 ripe apples, 1 lemon, 1/2 lb. of lump sugar, 1/2 pint of water. [Illustration: COMPÔTE OF APPLES.] Mode .—Select the apples of a moderate size, peel them, cut them in halves, remove the cores, and rub each piece over with a little lemon. Put the sugar and water together into a lined saucepan, and let them boil until forming a thickish syrup, when lay in the apples with the rind of the lemon cut thin, and the juice of the same. Let the apples
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APPLE GINGER.
APPLE GINGER.
( A Dessert Dish .) 1516 INGREDIENTS.—2 lbs. of any kind of hard apples, 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 oz. of tincture of ginger. Mode .—Boil the sugar and water until they form a rich syrup, adding the ginger when it boils up. Pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces; dip them in cold water to preserve the colour, and boil them in the syrup until transparent; but be careful not to let them break. Put the pieces of apple into jars, pour over the syrup, and carefully exclude the
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APPLE JAM.
APPLE JAM.
1517. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit weighed after being pared, cored, and sliced, allow 3/4 lb. of preserving-sugar, the grated rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Peel the apples, core and slice them very thin, and be particular that they are all the same sort. Put them into a jar, stand this in a saucepan of boiling water, and let the apples stew until quite tender. Previously to putting the fruit into the jar, weigh it, to ascertain the proportion of sugar that may be require
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APPLE JELLY.
APPLE JELLY.
1518. INGREDIENTS.—To 6 lbs. of apples allow 3 pints of water; to every quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar;—the juice of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and put them into a jar, with water in the above proportion. Place them in a cool oven, with the jar well covered, and when the juice is thoroughly drawn and the apples are quite soft, strain them through a jelly-bag. To every quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, which should be crushed to small lumps,
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II.
II.
1519. INGREDIENTS.—Apples, water: to every pint of syrup allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Pare and cut the apples into pieces, remove the cores, and put them in a preserving-pan with sufficient cold water to cover them. Let them boil for an hour; then drain the syrup from them through a hair sieve or jelly-bag, and measure the juice; to every pint allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar, and boil these together for 3/4 hour, removing every particle of scum as it rises, and keeping the jelly well stirred,
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COMPOTE OF APRICOTS.
COMPOTE OF APRICOTS.
( An elegant Dish .) 1521. INGREDIENTS.—1/2 pint of syrup No. 1512, 12 green apricots. Mode .—Make the syrup by recipe No. 1512, and when it is ready, put in the apricots whilst the syrup is boiling. Simmer them very gently until tender, taking care not to let them break; take them out carefully, arrange them on a glass dish, let the syrup cool a little, pour it over the apricots, and, when cold, serve. Time .—From 15 to 20 minutes to simmer the apricots. Average cost , 9d. Sufficient for 4 or 5
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BARBERRIES IN BUNCHES.
BARBERRIES IN BUNCHES.
1523. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of syrup No. 1513, barberries. Mode .—Prepare some small pieces of clean white wood, 3 inches long and 1/4 inch wide, and tie the fruit on to these in nice bunches. Have ready some clear syrup, made by recipe No. 1513; put in the barberries, and simmer them in it for 2 successive days, boiling them for nearly 1/2 hour each day, and covering them each time with the syrup when cold. When the fruit looks perfectly clear, it is sufficiently done, and should be stored away i
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TO MAKE BARLEY-SUGAR.
TO MAKE BARLEY-SUGAR.
1524. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 the white of an egg. Mode .—Put the sugar into a well-tinned saucepan, with the water, and, when the former is dissolved, set it over a moderate fire, adding the well-beaten egg before the mixture gets warm, and stir it well together. When it boils, remove the scum as it rises, and keep it boiling until no more appears, and the syrup looks perfectly clear; then strain it through a fine sieve or muslin bag, and put it back into
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CARROT JAM TO IMITATE APRICOT PRESERVE.
CARROT JAM TO IMITATE APRICOT PRESERVE.
1525. INGREDIENTS.—Carrots; to every lb. of carrot pulp allow 1 lb. of pounded sugar, the grated rind of 1 lemon, the strained juice of 2, 6 chopped bitter almonds, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy. Mode .—Select young carrots; wash and scrape them clean, cut them into round pieces, put them into a saucepan with sufficient water to cover them, and let them simmer until perfectly soft; then beat them through a sieve. Weigh the pulp, and to every lb. allow the above ingredients. Put the pulp into a pres
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TO MAKE CHERRY BRANDY.
TO MAKE CHERRY BRANDY.
1536. INGREDIENTS.—Morella cherries, good brandy; to every lb. of cherries allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar. Mode .—Have ready some glass bottles, which must be perfectly dry. Ascertain that the cherries are not too ripe and are freshly gathered, and cut off about half of the stalks. Put them into the bottles, with the above proportion of sugar to every lb. of fruit; strew this in between the cherries, and, when the bottles are nearly full, pour in sufficient brandy to reach just below the cork. A f
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DRIED CHERRIES.
DRIED CHERRIES.
1527. CHERRIES may be put in a slow oven and thoroughly dried before they begin to change colour. They should then be taken out of the oven, tied in bunches, and stored away in a dry place. In the winter, they may be cooked with sugar for dessert, the same as Normandy pippins. Particular care must be taken that the oven be not too hot. Another method of drying cherries is to stone them, and to put them into a preserving-pan, with plenty of loaf sugar strewed amongst them. They should be simmered
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CHERRY JAM.
CHERRY JAM.
1528. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit, weighed before stoning, allow 1/2 lb. of sugar; to every 6 lbs. of fruit allow 1 pint of red-currant juice, and to every pint of juice 1 lb. of sugar. Mode .—Weigh the fruit before stoning, and allow half the weight of sugar; stone the cherries, and boil them in a preserving-pan until nearly all the juice is dried up; then add the sugar, which should be crushed to powder, and the currant-juice, allowing 1 pint to every 6 lbs. of cherries (original weight
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TO PRESERVE CHERRIES IN SYRUP.
TO PRESERVE CHERRIES IN SYRUP.
( Very delicious .) 1529. INGREDIENTS.—4 lbs. of cherries, 3 lbs. of sugar, 1 pint of white-currant juice. Mode .—Let the cherries be as clear and as transparent as possible, and perfectly ripe; pick off the stalks, and remove the stones, damaging the fruit as little as you can. Make a syrup with the above proportion of sugar, by recipe No. 1512; mix the cherries with it, and boil them for about 15 minutes, carefully skimming them; turn them gently into a pan, and let them remain till the next d
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BLACK-CURRANT JAM.
BLACK-CURRANT JAM.
1530. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stripped from the stalks, allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 gill of water. Mode .—Let the fruit be very ripe, and gathered on a dry day. Strip it from the stalks, and put it into a preserving-pan, with a gill of water to each lb. of fruit; boil these together for 10 minutes; then add the sugar, and boil the jam again for 30 minutes, reckoning from the time when the jam simmers equally all over, or longer, should it not appear to set nic
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BLACK-CURRANT JELLY.
BLACK-CURRANT JELLY.
1531. INGREDIENTS.—Black currants; to every pint of juice allow 1/4 pint of water, 1 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Strip the currants from the stalks, which may be done in an expeditious manner, by holding the bunch in one hand, and passing a small silver fork down the currants: they will then readily fall from the stalks. Put them into a jar, place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer them until their juice is extracted; then strain them, and to every pint of juice allow the above pr
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RED-CURRANT JAM.
RED-CURRANT JAM.
1532. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. [Illustration: JAM-POT.] Mode .—Let the fruit be gathered on a fine day; weigh it, and then strip the currants from the stalks; put them into a preserving-pan with sugar in the above proportion; stir them, and boil them for about 3/4 hour. Carefully remove the scum as it rises. Put the jam into pots, and, when cold, cover with oiled papers; over these put a piece of tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an
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RED-CURRANT JELLY.
RED-CURRANT JELLY.
1533. INGREDIENTS.—Red currants; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Have the fruit gathered in fine weather; pick it from the stalks, put it into a jar, and place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and let it simmer gently until the juice is well drawn from the currants; then strain them through a jelly-bag or fine cloth, and, if the jelly is wished very clear, do not squeeze them too much , as the skin and pulp from the fruit will be pressed through w
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WHITE-CURRANT JELLY.
WHITE-CURRANT JELLY.
1534. INGREDIENTS.—White currants; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of good loaf sugar. Mode .—Pick the currants from the stalks, and put them into a jar; place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer until the juice is well drawn from the fruit, which will be in from 3/4 to 1 hour. Then strain the currants through a fine cloth or jelly-bag; do not squeeze them too much, or the jelly will not be clear, and put the juice into a very clean preserving-pan, with the sugar. Let this s
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BAKED DAMSONS FOR WINTER USE.
BAKED DAMSONS FOR WINTER USE.
1535. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit allow 6 oz. of pounded sugar; melted mutton suet. Mode .—Choose sound fruit, not too ripe; pick off the stalks, weigh it, and to every lb. allow the above proportion of pounded sugar. Put the fruit into large dry stone jars, sprinkling the sugar amongst it; cover the jars with saucers, place them in a rather cool oven, and bake the fruit until it is quite tender. When cold, cover the top of the fruit with a piece of white paper cut to the size of the jar;
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DAMSON CHEESE.
DAMSON CHEESE.
1536. INGREDIENTS.—Damsons; to every lb. of fruit pulp allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Pick the stalks from the damsons, and put them into a preserving-pan; simmer them over the fire until they are soft, occasionally stirring them; then beat them through a coarse sieve, and put the pulp and juice into the preserving-pan, with sugar in the above proportion, having previously carefully weighed them. Stir the sugar well in, and simmer the damsons slowly for 2 hours. Skim well; then boil the pre
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COMPOTE OF DAMSONS.
COMPOTE OF DAMSONS.
1537. INGREDIENTS.—1 quart of damsons, 1 pint of syrup No. 1512. Mode .—Procure sound ripe damsons; pick the stalks from them, and put them into boiling syrup, made by recipe No. 1512. Simmer them gently until the fruit is tender, but not sufficiently soft to break; take them up, boil the syrup for 5 minutes; pour it over the damsons, and serve. This should be sent to table in a glass dish. Time .—About 1/4 hour to simmer the damsons; 5 minutes to boil the syrup. Average cost , 9d. Sufficient fo
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DAMSON JAM.
DAMSON JAM.
1538. INGREDIENTS.—Damsons; to every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Have the fruit gathered in dry weather; pick it over, and reject any that is at all blemished. Stone the damsons, weigh them, and to every lb. allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Put the fruit and sugar into a preserving-pan; keep stirring them gently until the sugar is dissolved, and carefully remove the scum as it rises. Boil the jam for about an hour, reckoning from the time it commences to simmer all over alike: i
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A VERY NICE PRESERVE OF DAMSONS.
A VERY NICE PRESERVE OF DAMSONS.
1539. INGREDIENTS.—To every quart of damsons allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Put the damsons (which should be picked from the stalks and quite free from blemishes) into a jar, with pounded sugar sprinkled amongst them in the above proportion; tie the jar closely down, set it in a saucepan of cold water; bring it gradually to boil, and simmer gently until the damsons are soft, without being broken. Let them stand till cold; then strain the juice from them, boil it up well, strain it through a
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TO PRESERVE DAMSONS, OR ANY KIND OF PLUMS.
TO PRESERVE DAMSONS, OR ANY KIND OF PLUMS.
( Useful in Winter .) 1540. INGREDIENTS.—Damsons or plums; boiling water. Mode .—Pick the fruit into clean dry stone jars, taking care to leave out all that are broken or blemished. When full, pour boiling water on the plums, until it stands one inch above the fruit; cut a piece of paper to fit the inside of the jar, over which pour melted mutton-suet; cover down with brown paper, and keep the jars in a dry cool place. When used, the suet should be removed, the water poured off, and the jelly at
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COMPOTE OF GREEN FIGS.
COMPOTE OF GREEN FIGS.
[Illustration: COMPÔTE OF FIGS.] 1541. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of syrup No. 1512, 1-1/2 pint of green figs, the rind of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, boiling with it the lemon-rind, and carefully remove all the scum as it rises. Put in the figs, and simmer them very slowly until tender; dish them on a glass dish; reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for 5 minutes; take out the lemon-peel, pour the syrup over the figs, and the compote, when cold, will be ready for table. A litt
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TO BOTTLE FRESH FRUIT.
TO BOTTLE FRESH FRUIT.
( Very useful in Winter .) 1542. INGREDIENTS.—Fresh fruits, such as currants, raspberries, cherries, gooseberries, plums of all kinds, damsons, &c.; wide-mouthed glass bottles, new corks to fit them tightly. Mode .—Let the fruit be full grown, but not too ripe, and gathered in dry weather. Pick it off the stalks without bruising or breaking the skin, and reject any that is at all blemished: if gathered in the damp, or if the skins are cut at all, the fruit will mould. Have ready some per
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II.
II.
1543. INGREDIENTS.—Any kind of fresh fruit, such as currants, cherries, gooseberries, all kinds of plums, &c.; wide-mouthed glass bottles, new corks to fit them tightly. Mode .—The fruit must be full-grown, not too ripe, and gathered on a fine day. Let it be carefully picked and put into the bottles, which must be clean and perfectly dry. Tie over the tops of the bottles pieces of bladder; stand the bottles in a large pot, copper, or boiler, with cold water to reach to their necks; kindl
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TO BOTTLE FRESH FRUIT WITH SUGAR.
TO BOTTLE FRESH FRUIT WITH SUGAR.
( Very useful in Winter .) 1544. INGREDIENTS.—Any kind of fresh fruit; to each quart bottle allow 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar. Mode .—Let the fruit be gathered in dry weather. Pick it carefully, and drop it into clean and very dry quart glass bottles, sprinkling over it the above proportion of pounded sugar to each quart. Put the corks in the bottles, and place them in a copper of cold water up to their necks, with small hay-wisps round them, to prevent the bottles from knocking together. Light the
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COMPOTE OF GOOSEBERRIES.
COMPOTE OF GOOSEBERRIES.
1546. INGREDIENTS.—Syrup made by recipe No. 1512; to 1 pint of syrup allow nearly a quart of gooseberries. Mode .—Top and tail the gooseberries, which should not be very ripe, and pour over them some boiling water; then take them out, and plunge them into cold water, with which has been mixed a tablespoonful of vinegar, which will assist to keep the fruit a good colour. Make a pint of syrup by recipe No. 1512, and when it boils, drain the gooseberries and put them in; simmer them gently until th
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GOOSEBERRY JAM.
GOOSEBERRY JAM.
1547. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar; currant-juice. Mode .—Select red hairy gooseberries; have them gathered in dry weather, when quite ripe, without being too soft. Weigh them; with a pair of scissors, cut off the tops and tails, and to every 6 lbs. of fruit have ready 1/2 pint of red-currant juice, drawn as for jelly. Put the gooseberries and currant-juice into a preserving-pan; let them boil tolerably quickly, keeping them well stirred; when they begin to brea
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II.
II.
1548. INGREDIENTS.—To every 8 lbs. of red, rough, ripe gooseberries allow 1 quart of red-currant juice, 5 lbs. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Have the fruit gathered in dry weather, and cut off the tops and tails. Prepare 1 quart of red-currant juice, the same as for red-currant jelly No. 1533; put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and keep stirring until the latter is dissolved. Keep it boiling for about 5 minutes; skim well; then put in the gooseberries, and let them boil from 1/2 to 3/4 hour; t
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WHITE OR GREEN GOOSEBERRY JAM.
WHITE OR GREEN GOOSEBERRY JAM.
1549. INGREDIENTS.—Equal weight of fruit and sugar. Mode .—Select the gooseberries not very ripe, either white or green, and top and tail them. Boil the sugar with water (allowing 1/2 pint to every lb.) for about 1/4 hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises; then put in the gooseberries, and simmer gently till clear and firm: try a little of the jam on a plate; if it jellies when cold, it is done, and should then be poured into pots. When cold, cover with oiled paper, and tissue-paper brush
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GOOSEBERRY JELLY.
GOOSEBERRY JELLY.
1550. INGREDIENTS.—Gooseberries; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Put the gooseberries, after cutting off the tops and tails, into a preserving-pan, and stir them over the fire until they are quite soft; then strain them through a sieve, and to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for nearly 3/4 hour, stirring and skimming all the time; and if the jelly appears firm when a little of it is poured on to a plate, it is done, and sho
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COMPOTE OF GREENGAGES.
COMPOTE OF GREENGAGES.
1551. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of syrup made by recipe No. 1512, 1 quart of greengages. Mode .—Make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, skim it well, and put in the greengages when the syrup is boiling, having previously removed the stalks and stones from the fruit. Boil gently for 1/4 hour, or until the fruit is tender; but take care not to let it break, as the appearance of the dish would be spoiled were the fruit reduced to a pulp. Take the greengages carefully out, place them on a glass dish, boil the sy
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GREENGAGE JAM.
GREENGAGE JAM.
1552. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stoned, allow 3/4 lb. of lump sugar. Mode .—Divide the greengages, take out the stones, and put them into a preserving-pan. Bring the fruit to a boil, then add the sugar, and keep stirring it over a gentle fire until it is melted. Remove all the scum as it rises, and, just before the jam is done, boil it rapidly for 5 minutes. To ascertain when it is sufficiently boiled, pour a little on a plate, and if the syrup thickens and appears
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TO PRESERVE AND DRY GREENGAGES.
TO PRESERVE AND DRY GREENGAGES.
1553. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of sugar allow 1 lb. of fruit, 1/4 pint of water. Mode .—For this purpose, the fruit must be used before it is quite ripe, and part of the stalk must be left on. Weigh the fruit, rejecting all that is in the least degree blemished, and put it into a lined saucepan with the sugar and water, which should have been previously boiled together to a rich syrup. Boil the fruit in this for 10 minutes, remove it from the fire, and drain the greengages. The next day, boil u
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PRESERVED GREENGAGES IN SYRUP.
PRESERVED GREENGAGES IN SYRUP.
1554. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar 1/4 pint of water. Mode .—Boil the sugar and water together for about 10 minutes; divide the greengages, take out the stones, put the fruit into the syrup, and let it simmer gently until nearly tender. Take it off the fire, put it into a large pan, and, the next day, boil it up again for about 10 minutes with the kernels from the stones, which should be blanched. Put the fruit carefully into jars, pour over it the syrup, and, whe
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TO MAKE FRUIT ICE-CREAMS.
TO MAKE FRUIT ICE-CREAMS.
1555. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of cream; sugar to taste. Mode .—Let the fruit be well ripened; pick it off the stalks, and put it into a large earthen pan. Stir it about with a wooden spoon, breaking it until it is well mashed; then, with the back of the spoon, rub it through a hair sieve. Sweeten it nicely with pounded sugar; whip the cream for a few minutes, add it to the fruit, and whisk the whole again for another 5 minutes. Put the mixture into the freezing-pot
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TO MAKE FRUIT-WATER ICES.
TO MAKE FRUIT-WATER ICES.
1556. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of syrup made by recipe No. 1513. [Illustration: DISH OF ICES.] Mode .—Select nice ripe fruit; pick off the stalks, and put it into a large earthen pan, with a little pounded sugar strewed over; stir it about with a wooden spoon until it is well broken, then rub it through a hair sieve. Make the syrup by recipe No. 1513, omitting the white of the egg; let it cool, add the fruit-juice, mix well together, and put the mixture into the fre
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LEMON-WATER ICE.
LEMON-WATER ICE.
1557. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of syrup, made by recipe No. 1513, allow 1/3 pint of lemon-juice; the rind of 4 lemons. Mode .—Rub the sugar on the rinds of the lemons, and with it make the syrup by recipe No. 1513, omitting the white of egg. Strain the lemon-juice, add it to the other ingredients, stir well, and put the mixture into a freezing-pot. Freeze as directed for Ice Pudding, No. 1290, and, when the mixture is thoroughly and equally frozen, put it into ice-glasses. Time .—1/2 hour to f
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MELONS.
MELONS.
1559.—This fruit is rarely preserved or cooked in any way, and should be sent to table on a dish garnished with leaves or flowers, as fancy dictates. A border of any other kind of small fruit, arranged round the melon, has a pretty effect, the colour the former contrasting nicely with the melon. Plenty of pounded sugar should be served with it; and the fruit should be cut lengthwise, in moderate-sized slices. In America, it is frequently eaten with pepper and salt. Average cost ,—English, in ful
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TO PRESERVE MORELLO CHERRIES.
TO PRESERVE MORELLO CHERRIES.
1561. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of cherries allow 1-1/4 lb. of sugar, 1 gill of water. Mode .—Select ripe cherries; pick off the stalks, and reject all that have any blemishes. Boil the sugar and water together for 5 minutes; put in the cherries, and boil them for 10 minutes, removing the scum as it rises. Then turn the fruit, &c. into a pan, and let it remain until the next day, when boil it all again for another 10 minutes, and, if necessary, skim well. Put the cherries into small pots
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PRESERVED NECTARINES.
PRESERVED NECTARINES.
1562. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of sugar allow 1/4 pint of water; nectarines. Mode .—Divide the nectarines in two, take out the stones, and make a strong syrup with sugar and water in the above proportion. Put in the nectarines, and boil them until they have thoroughly imbibed the sugar. Keep the fruit as whole as possible, and turn it carefully into a pan. The next day boil it again for a few minutes, take out the nectarines, put them into jars, boil the syrup quickly for 5 minutes, pour it ove
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STEWED NORMANDY PIPPINS.
STEWED NORMANDY PIPPINS.
1563. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of Normandy pippins, 1 quart of water, 1/2 teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1 lb. of moist sugar, 1 lemon. Mode .—Well wash the pippins, and put them into 1 quart of water with the above proportion of cinnamon and ginger, and let them stand 12 hours; then put these all together into a stewpan, with the lemon sliced thinly, and half the moist sugar. Let them boil slowly until the pippins are half done; then add the remainder of the sugar
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ICED ORANGES.
ICED ORANGES.
1564. INGREDIENTS.—Oranges; to every lb. of pounded loaf sugar allow the whites of 2 eggs. Mode .—Whisk the whites of the eggs well, stir in the sugar, and beat this mixture for 1/4 hour. Skin the oranges, remove as much of the white pith as possible without injuring the pulp of the fruit; pass a thread through the centre of each orange, dip them into the sugar, and tie them to a stick. Place this stick across the oven, and let the oranges remain until dry, when they will have the appearance of
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COMPOTE OF ORANGES.
COMPOTE OF ORANGES.
1565. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of syrup No. 1512, 6 oranges. Mode .—Peel the oranges, remove as much of the white pith as possible, and divide them into small pieces without breaking the thin skin with which they are surrounded. Make the syrup by recipe No. 1512, adding the rind of the orange cut into thin narrow strips. When the syrup has been well skimmed, and is quite clear, put in the pieces of orange, and simmer them for 5 minutes. Take them out carefully with a spoon without breaking them, and
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ORANGE MARMALADE.
ORANGE MARMALADE.
1566. INGREDIENTS.—Equal weight of fine loaf sugar and Seville oranges; to 12 oranges allow 1 pint of water. Mode .—Let there be an equal weight of loaf sugar and Seville oranges, and allow the above proportion of water to every dozen oranges. Peel them carefully, remove a little of the white pith, and boil the rinds in water 2 hours, changing the water three times to take off a little of the bitter taste. Break the pulp into small pieces, take out all the pips, and cut the boiled rind into chip
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AN EASY WAY OF MAKING ORANGE MARMALADE.
AN EASY WAY OF MAKING ORANGE MARMALADE.
1568. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of pulp allow 1-1/2 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Choose some fine Seville oranges; put them whole into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and stew them until they become perfectly tender, changing the water 2 or 3 times; drain them, take off the rind, remove the pips from the pulp, weigh it, and to every lb. allow 1-1/2 of loaf sugar and 1/2 pint of the water the oranges were last boiled in. Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes; put in the pul
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ORANGE MARMALADE MADE WITH HONEY.
ORANGE MARMALADE MADE WITH HONEY.
1569. INGREDIENTS.—To 1 quart of the juice and pulp of Seville oranges allow 2 lbs. of honey, 1 lb. of the rind. Mode .—Peel the oranges and boil the rind in water until tender, and cut it into strips. Take away the pips from the juice and pulp, and put it with the honey and chips into a preserving-pan; boil all together for about 1/2 hour, or until the marmalade is of the proper consistency; put it into pots, and, when cold, cover down with bladders. Time .—2 hours to boil the rind, 1/2 hour th
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TO PRESERVE ORANGES.
TO PRESERVE ORANGES.
1570. INGREDIENTS.—Oranges; to every lb. of juice and pulp allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar; to every pint of water 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Wholly grate or peel the oranges, taking off only the thin outside portion of the rind. Make a small incision where the stalk is taken out, squeeze out as much of the juice as can be obtained, and preserve it in a basin with the pulp that accompanies it. Put the oranges into cold water; let them stand for 3 days, changing the water twice; then boil them in f
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ORANGE SALAD.
ORANGE SALAD.
1571. INGREDIENTS.—6 oranges, 1/4 lb. of muscatel raisins, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy. Mode .—Peel 5 of the oranges; divide them into slices without breaking the pulp, and arrange them on a glass dish. Stone the raisins, mix them with the sugar and brandy, and mingle them with the oranges. Squeeze the juice of the other orange over the whole, and the dish is ready for table. A little pounded spice may be put in when the flavour is liked; but this ingredient must be added
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COMPOTE OF PEACHES.
COMPOTE OF PEACHES.
1572. INGREDIENTS.—1 pint of syrup No. 1512, about 15 small peaches. Mode .—Peaches that are not very large, and that would not look well for dessert, answer very nicely for a compôte. Divide the peaches, take out the stones, and pare the fruit; make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, put in the peaches, and stew them gently for about 10 minutes. Take them out without breaking, arrange them on a glass dish, boil the syrup for 2 or 3 minutes, let it cool, pour it over the fruit, and, when cold, it will
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BAKED PEARS.
BAKED PEARS.
1574. INGREDIENTS.—12 pears, the rind of 1 lemon, 6 cloves, 10 whole allspice; to every pint of water allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Pare and cut the pears into halves, and, should they be very large, into quarters; leave the stalks on, and carefully remove the cores. Place them in a clean baking-jar, with a closely-fitting lid; add to them the lemon-rind cut in strips, the juice of 1/2 lemon, the cloves, pounded allspice, and sufficient water just to cover the whole, with sugar in the abov
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STEWED PEARS.
STEWED PEARS.
[Illustration: STEWED PEARS.] 1576. INGREDIENTS.—8 large pears, 5 oz. of loaf sugar, 6 cloves, 6 whole allspice, 1/2 pint of water, 1/4 pint of port wine, a few drops of prepared cochineal. Mode .—Pare the pears, halve them, remove the cores, and leave the stalks on; put them into a lined saucepan with the above ingredients, and let them simmer very gently until tender, which will be in from 3 to 4 hours, according to the quality of the pears. They should be watched, and, when done, carefully li
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PRESERVED PINEAPPLE.
PRESERVED PINEAPPLE.
1578. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit, weighed after being pared, allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar; 1/4 pint of water. Mode .—The pines for making this preserve should be perfectly sound but ripe. Cut them into rather thick slices, as the fruit shrinks very much in the boiling. Pare off the rind carefully, that none of the pine be wasted; and, in doing so, notch it in and out, as the edge cannot be smoothly cut without great waste. Dissolve a portion of the sugar in a preserving-pan with 1/4 pint of
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PLUM JAM.
PLUM JAM.
1580. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of plums, weighed before being stoned, allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—In making plum jam, the quantity of sugar for each lb. of fruit must be regulated by the quality and size of the fruit, some plums requiring much more sugar than others. Divide the plums, take out the stones, and put them on to large dishes, with roughly-pounded sugar sprinkled over them in the above proportion, and let them remain for one day; then put them into a preserving-pan, stand the
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TO PRESERVE PLUMS DRY.
TO PRESERVE PLUMS DRY.
1582. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of sugar allow 1/4 pint of water. Mode .—Gather the plums when they are full-grown and just turning colour; prick them, put them into a saucepan of cold water, and set them on the fire until the water is on the point of boiling. Then take them out, drain them, and boil them gently in syrup made with the above proportion of sugar and water; and if the plums shrink, and will not take the sugar, prick them as they lie in the pan; give them another boil, skim, and set
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PRESERVED PUMPKIN.
PRESERVED PUMPKIN.
1584. INGREDIENTS.—To each lb. of pumpkin allow 1 lb. of roughly pounded loaf sugar, 1 gill of lemon-juice. Mode .—Obtain a good sweet pumpkin; halve it, take out the seeds, and pare off the rind; cut it into neat slices, or into pieces about the size of a five-shilling piece. Weigh the pumpkin, put the slices in a pan or deep dish in layers, with the sugar sprinkled between them; pour the lemon-juice over the top, and let the whole remain for 2 or 3 days. Boil altogether, adding 1/4 pint of wat
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QUINCE JELLY.
QUINCE JELLY.
1585. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of juice allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Pare and slice the quinces, and put them into a preserving-pan with sufficient water to float them. Boil them until tender, and the fruit is reduced to a pulp; strain off the clear juice, and to each pint allow the above proportion of loaf sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for about 3/4 hour; remove all the scum as it rises, and, when the jelly appears firm when a little is poured on a plate, it is done. The resid
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QUINCE MARMALADE.
QUINCE MARMALADE.
1586. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of quince pulp allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Slice the quinces into a preserving-pan, adding sufficient water for them to float; place them on the fire to stew, until reduced to a pulp, keeping them stirred occasionally from the bottom, to prevent their burning; then pass the pulp through a hair sieve, to keep back the skin and seeds. Weigh the pulp, and to each lb. add lump sugar in the above proportion, broken very small. Place the whole on the fire, and k
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RAISIN CHEESE.
RAISIN CHEESE.
1587. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of raisins allow a lb. of loaf sugar; pounded cinnamon and cloves to taste. Mode .—Stone the raisins; put them into a stewpan with the sugar, cinnamon, and cloves, and let them boil for 1-1/2 hour, stirring all the time. Let the preparation cool a little, pour it into a glass dish, and garnish with strips of candied lemon-peel and citron. This will remain good some time, if kept in a dry place. Time .—1-1/2 hour. Average cost , 9d. Sufficient .—1 lb. for 4 or 5 pe
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RASPBERRY JAM.
RASPBERRY JAM.
1588. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of raspberries allow 1 lb. of sugar, 1/4 pint of red-currant juice. Mode .—Let the fruit for this preserve be gathered in fine weather, and used as soon after it is picked as possible. Take off the stalks, put the raspberries into a preserving-pan, break them well with a wooden spoon, and let them boil for 1/4 hour, keeping them well stirred. Then add the currant-juice and sugar, and boil again for 1/2 hour. Skim the jam well after the sugar is added, or the prese
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RASPBERRY JELLY.
RASPBERRY JELLY.
1589. INGREDIENTS.—To each pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Let the raspberries be freshly gathered, quite ripe, and picked from the stalks; put them into a large jar, after breaking the fruit a little with a wooden spoon, and place this jar, covered, in a saucepan of boiling water. When the juice is well drawn, which will be in from 3/4 to 1 hour, strain the fruit through a fine hair sieve or cloth; measure the juice, and to every pint allow the above proportion of loaf sugar.
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RHUBARB JAM.
RHUBARB JAM.
1590. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of rhubarb allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon. Mode .—Wipe the rhubarb perfectly dry, take off the string or peel, and weigh it; put it into a preserving-pan, with sugar in the above proportion; mince the lemon-rind very finely, add it to the other ingredients, and place the preserving-pan by the side of the fire; keep stirring to prevent the rhubarb from burning, and when the sugar is well dissolved, put the pan more over the fire, and let the jam b
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STRAWBERRIES AND CREAM.
STRAWBERRIES AND CREAM.
1593. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of picked strawberries allow 1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of finely-pounded sugar. Mode .—Pick the stalks from the fruit, place it on a glass dish, sprinkle over it pounded sugar, and slightly stir the strawberries, that they may all be equally sweetened; pour the cream over the top, and serve. Devonshire cream, when it can be obtained, is exceedingly delicious for this dish; and, if very thick indeed, may be diluted with a little thin cream or milk. Average cost for
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STRAWBERRY JAM.
STRAWBERRY JAM.
1594. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit allow 1/2 pint of red-currant juice, 1-1/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Mode .—Strip the currants from the stalks, put them into a jar; place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer until the juice is well drawn from the fruit; strain the currants, measure the juice, put it into a preserving-pan, and add the sugar. Select well-ripened but sound strawberries; pick them from the stalks, and when the sugar is dissolved in the currant juice, put in the frui
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PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES IN WINE.
PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES IN WINE.
1595. INGREDIENTS.—To every quart bottle allow 1/4 lb. of finely-pounded loaf sugar; sherry or Madeira. Mode .—Let the fruit be gathered in fine weather, and used as soon as picked. Have ready some perfectly dry glass bottles, and some nice soft corks or bungs. Pick the stalks from the strawberries, drop them into the bottles, sprinkling amongst them pounded sugar in the above proportion, and when the fruit reaches to the neck of the bottle, fill up with sherry or Madeira. Cork the bottles down
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TO PRESERVE STRAWBERRIES WHOLE.
TO PRESERVE STRAWBERRIES WHOLE.
1596. INGREDIENTS.—To every lb. of fruit allow 1-1/2 lb. of good loaf sugar, 1 pint of red-currant juice. Mode .—Choose the strawberries not too ripe, of a fine large sort and of a good colour. Pick off the stalks, lay the strawberries in a dish, and sprinkle over them half the quantity of sugar, which must be finely pounded. Shake the dish gently, that the sugar may be equally distributed and touch the under-side of the fruit, and let it remain for 1 day. Then have ready the currant-juice, draw
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TO MAKE EVERTON TOFFEE.
TO MAKE EVERTON TOFFEE.
1597. INGREDIENTS.—1 lb. of powdered loaf sugar, 1 teacupful of water, 1/4 lb. of butter, 6 drops of essence of lemon. Mode .—Put the water and sugar into a brass pan, and beat the butter to a cream. When the sugar is dissolved, add the butter, and keep stirring the mixture over the fire until it sets, when a little is poured on to a buttered dish; and just before the toffee is done, add the essence of lemon. Butter a dish or tin, pour on it the mixture, and when cool, it will easily separate fr
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DESSERT DISHES.
DESSERT DISHES.
[Illustration: DISH OF NUTS.] [Illustration: BOX OF FRENCH PLUMS.] [Illustration: DISH OF MIXED FRUIT.] 1598. The tazza, or dish with stem, the same as that shown in our illustrations, is now the favourite shape for dessert-dishes. The fruit can be arranged and shown to better advantage on these tall high dishes than on the short flat ones. All the dishes are now usually placed down the centre of the table, dried and fresh fruit alternately, the former being arranged on small round or oval glass
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DISH OF NUTS.
DISH OF NUTS.
1599. These are merely arranged piled high in the centre of the dish, as shown in the engraving, with or without leaves round the edge. Filberts should always be served with the outer skin or husk on them; and walnuts should be well wiped with a damp cloth, and then—with a dry one, to remove the unpleasant sticky feeling the shells frequently have. Seasonable .—Filberts from September to March, good; may be had after that time, but are generally shrivelled and dry. Walnuts from September to Janu
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DISH OF MIXED FRUIT.
DISH OF MIXED FRUIT.
1601. For a centre dish, a mixture of various fresh fruits has a remarkably good effect, particularly if a pine be added to the list. A high raised appearance should be given to the fruit, which is done in the following manner. Place a tumbler in the centre of the dish, and, in this tumbler, the pine, crown uppermost; round the tumbler put a thick layer of moss, and, over this, apples, pears, plums, peaches, and such fruit as is simultaneously in season. By putting a layer of moss underneath, so
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DISH OF APPLES.
DISH OF APPLES.
1603. The apples should be nicely wiped with a dry cloth, and arranged on a dish, piled high in the centre, with evergreen leaves between each layer. The inferior apples should form the bottom layer, with the bright-coloured large ones at the top. The leaves of the laurel, bay, holly, or any shrub green in winter, are suitable for garnishing dessert dishes. Oranges may be arranged in the same manner; they should also be wiped with a dry cloth before being sent to table....
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DISH OF MIXED SUMMER FRUIT.
DISH OF MIXED SUMMER FRUIT.
1604. This dish consists of cherries, raspberries, currants, and strawberries, piled in different layers, with plenty of leaves between each layer; so that each fruit is well separated. The fruit should be arranged with a due regard to colour, so that they contrast nicely one with the other. Our engraving shows a layer of white cherries at the bottom, then one of red raspberries; over that a layer of white currants, and at the top some fine scarlet strawberries. Seasonable in June, July, and Aug
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ALMONDS AND RAISINS.
ALMONDS AND RAISINS.
1605. These are usually served on glass dishes, the fruit piled high in the centre, and the almonds blanched, and strewn over. To blanch the almonds, put them into a small mug or teacup, pour over them boiling water, let them remain for 2 or 3 minutes, and the skins may then be easily removed. Figs, dates, French plums, &c., are all served on small glass plates or oval dishes, but without the almonds. Seasonable at any time, but more suitable in winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable
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TO HAVE WALNUTS FRESH THROUGHOUT THE SEASON.
TO HAVE WALNUTS FRESH THROUGHOUT THE SEASON.
1607. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of water allow 1 teaspoonful of salt. Mode .—Place the walnuts in the salt and water for 24 hours at least; then take them out, and rub them dry. Old nuts may be freshened in this manner; or walnuts, when first picked, may be put into an earthen pan with salt sprinkled amongst them, and with damped hay placed on the top of them, and then covered down with a lid. They must be well wiped before they are put on table. Seasonable .—Should be stored away in September
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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE, AND EGGS. MILK.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE, AND EGGS. MILK.
1608. Milk is obtained only from the class of animals called Mammalia, and is intended by Nature for the nourishment of their young. The milk of each animal is distinguished by some peculiarities; but as that of the cow is by far the most useful to us in this part of the world, our observations will be confined to that variety. 1609. Milk, when drawn from the cow, is of a yellowish-white colour, and is the most yellow at the beginning of the period of lactation. Its taste is agreeable, and rathe
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BUTTER.
BUTTER.
1615. BECKMAN, in his "History of Inventions," states that butter was not used either by the Greeks or Romans in cooking, nor was it brought upon their tables at certain meals, as is the custom at present. In England it has been made from time immemorial, though the art of making cheese is said not to have been known to the ancient Britons, and to have been learned from their conquerors. 1616. The taste of butter is peculiar, and very unlike any other fatty substance. It is extremely agreeable w
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CHEESE.
CHEESE.
1620. CHEESE is the curd formed from milk by artificial coagulation, pressed and dried for use. Curd, called also casein and caseous matter, or the basis of cheese, exists in the milk, and not in the cream, and requires only to be separated by coagulation. The coagulation, however, supposes some alteration of the curd. By means of the substance employed to coagulate it, it is rendered insoluble in water. When the curd is freed from the whey, kneaded and pressed to expel it entirely, it becomes c
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EGGS.
EGGS.
1623. There is only one opinion as to the nutritive properties of eggs, although the qualities of those belonging to different birds vary somewhat. Those of the common hen are most esteemed as delicate food, particularly when "new-laid." The quality of eggs depends much upon the food given to the hen. Eggs in general are considered most easily digestible when little subjected to the art of cookery. The lightest way of dressing them is by poaching, which is effected by putting them for a minute o
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CHAPTER XXXIII. SEPARATION OF MILK AND CREAM.
CHAPTER XXXIII. SEPARATION OF MILK AND CREAM.
1627. If it be desired that the milk should be freed entirely from cream, it should be poured into a very shallow broad pan or dish, not more than 1-1/2 inch deep, as cream cannot rise through a great depth of milk. In cold and wet weather, milk is not so rich as it is in summer and warm weather, and the morning's milk is always richer than the evening's. The last-drawn milk of each milking, at all times and seasons, is richer than the first-drawn, and on that account should be set apart for cre
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DEVONSHIRE CREAM.
DEVONSHIRE CREAM.
1630. The milk should stand 24 hours in the winter, half that time when the weather is very warm. The milkpan is then set on a stove, and should there remain until the milk is quite hot; but it must not boil, or there will be a thick skin on the surface. When it is sufficiently done, the undulations on the surface look thick, and small rings appear. The time required for scalding cream depends on the size of the pan and the heat of the fire; but the slower it is done, the better. The pan should
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DEVONSHIRE JUNKET.
DEVONSHIRE JUNKET.
1631. INGREDIENTS.—To every pint of new milk allow 2 dessertspoonfuls of brandy, 1 dessertspoonful of sugar, and 1-1/2 dessertspoonful of prepared rennet; thick cream, pounded cinnamon, or grated nutmeg. Mode .—Make the milk blood-warm; put it into a deep dish with the brandy, sugar, and rennet; stir it altogether, and cover it over until it is set. Then spread some thick or clotted cream over the top, grate some nutmeg, and strew some sugar over, and the dish will be ready to serve. Time .—Abou
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TO KEEP AND CHOOSE FRESH BUTTER.
TO KEEP AND CHOOSE FRESH BUTTER.
1632. Fresh butter should be kept in a dark, cool place, and in as large a mass as possible. Mould as much only as is required, as the more surface is exposed, the more liability there will be to spoil; and the outside very soon becomes rancid. Fresh butter should be kept covered with white paper. For small larders, butter-coolers of red brick are now very much used for keeping fresh butter in warm weather. These coolers are made with a large bell-shaped cover, into the top of which a little col
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TO PRESERVE AND TO CHOOSE SALT BUTTER.
TO PRESERVE AND TO CHOOSE SALT BUTTER.
1633. In large families, where salt butter is purchased a tub at a time, the first thing to be done is to turn the whole of the butter out, and, with a clean knife, to scrape the outside; the tub should then be wiped with a clean cloth, and sprinkled all round with salt, the butter replaced, and the lid kept on to exclude the air. It is necessary to take these precautions, as sometimes a want of proper cleanliness in the dairymaid causes the outside of the butter to become rancid, and if the scr
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CURLED BUTTER.
CURLED BUTTER.
1635. Tie a strong cloth by two of the corners to an iron hook in the wall; make a knot with the other two ends, so that a stick might pass through. Put the butter into the cloth; twist it tightly over a dish, into which the butter will fall through the knot, so forming small and pretty little strings. The butter may then be garnished with parsley, if to serve with a cheese course; or it may be sent to table plain for breakfast, in an ornamental dish. Squirted butter for garnishing hams, salads,
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CHEESE.
CHEESE.
1638. In families where much cheese is consumed, and it is bought in large quantities, a piece from the whole cheese should be cut, the larger quantity spread with a thickly-buttered sheet of white paper, and the outside occasionally wiped. To keep cheeses moist that are in daily use, when they come from table a damp cloth should be wrapped round them, and the cheese put into a pan with a cover to it, in a cool but not very dry place. To ripen cheeses, and bring them forward, put them into a dam
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MODE OF SERVING CHEESE.
MODE OF SERVING CHEESE.
[Illustration: CHEESE-GLASS.] 1640. The usual mode of serving cheese at good tables is to cut a small quantity of it into neat square pieces, and to put them into a glass cheese-dish, this dish being handed round. Should the cheese crumble much, of course this method is rather wasteful, and it may then be put on the table in the piece, and the host may cut from it. When served thus, the cheese must always be carefully scraped, and laid on a white d'oyley or napkin, neatly folded. Cream cheese is
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TO MAKE A FONDUE.
TO MAKE A FONDUE.
1643. INGREDIENTS.—4 eggs, the weight of 2 in Parmesan or good Cheshire cheese, the weight of 2 in butter; pepper and salt to taste. Mode .—Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs; beat the former in a basin, and grate the cheese, or cut it into very thin flakes. Parmesan or Cheshire cheese may be used, whichever is the most convenient, although the former is considered more suitable for this dish; or an equal quantity of each may be used. Break the butter into small pieces, add it to the
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BRILLAT SAVARIN'S FONDUE.
BRILLAT SAVARIN'S FONDUE.
( An excellent Recipe .) 1644. INGREDIENTS.—Eggs, cheese, butter, pepper and salt. Mode .—Take the same number of eggs as there are guests; weigh the eggs in the shell, allow a third of their weight in Gruyère cheese, and a piece of butter one-sixth of the weight of the cheese. Break the eggs into a basin, beat them well; add the cheese, which should be grated, and the butter, which should be broken into small pieces. Stir these ingredients together with a wooden spoon; put the mixture into a li
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II.
II.
1646. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of pipe or riband macaroni, 1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of veal or beef gravy, the yolks of 2 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, 3 oz. of grated Parmesan or Cheshire cheese, 1 oz. of butter. Mode .—Wash the macaroni, and boil it in the gravy and milk until quite tender, without being broken. Drain it, and put it into rather a deep dish. Beat the yolks of the eggs with the cream and 2 tablespoonfuls of the liquor the macaroni was boiled in; make this sufficiently hot to th
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III.
III.
1647. INGREDIENTS.—1/4 lb. of pipe macaroni, 1/2 pint of brown gravy No. 436, 6 oz. of grated Parmesan cheese. Mode .—Wash the macaroni, and boil it in salt and water until quite tender; drain it, and put it into rather a deep dish. Have ready a pint of good brown gravy, pour it hot over the macaroni, and send it to table with grated Parmesan served on a separate dish. When the flavour is liked, a little pounded mace may be added to the water in which the macaroni is boiled; but this must always
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