`

STEM

From Lint’s Library

The Antiquity Of Man

by Charles Lyell

11 minute read

No subject has lately excited more curiosity and general interest among geologists and the public than the question of the Antiquity of the Human Race—whether or no we have sufficient evidence in caves, or in the superficial deposits commonly called drift or "diluvium," to prove the former co-existence of man with certain extinct mammalia. For the last half-century the occasional occurrence in various parts of Europe of the bones of Man or the works of his hands in cave-breccias and stalagmites, associated with the remains of the extinct hyaena, bear, elephant, or rhinoceros, has given rise to a suspicion that the date of Man must be carried farther back than we had heretofore imagined. On the other hand extreme reluctance was naturally felt on the part of scientific reasoners to admit the validity of such evidence, seeing that so many caves have been inhabited by a succession of tenants and...

The American Frugal Housewife

by Lydia Maria Child

6 minute read

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER 3 ODD SCRAPS FOR THE ECONOMICAL. 8 SOAP. 22 SIMPLE REMEDIES. 24 GRUEL. 30 EGG GRUEL. 31 ARROW-ROOT JELLY. 31 CALF'S FOOT JELLY. 31 TAPIOCA JELLY. 31 SAGO JELLY. 32 BEEF TEA. 32 WINE WHEY. 32 APPLE WATER. 32 MILK PORRIDGE. 32 STEWED PRUNES. 33 VEGETABLES. 33 HERBS. 36 CHEAP DYE-STUFFS. 38 MEAT CORNED, OR SALTED, HAMS, &c. 40 CHOICE OF MEAT. 43 COMMON COOKING. 47 VEAL. 47 CALF'S HEAD. 47 BEEF. 48 ALAMODE BEEF. 49 MUTTON AND LAMB. 49 PORK. 49 ROAST PIG. 50 SAUSAGES. 50 MINCE MEAT. 50 BEANS AND PEAS. 51 SOUSE. 52 TRIPE. 52 GRAVY. 52 POULTRY. 53 FRICASSEED CHICKEN, BROWN. 54 FRICASSEED CHICKEN, WHITE. 54 TO CURRY FOWL. 54 CHICKEN BROTH. 55 FISH. 57 PUDDINGS. 61 BAKED INDIAN PUDDING. 61 BOILED INDIAN PUDDING. 61 FLOUR OR BATTER PUDDING. 61 BREAD PUDDING. 62 RENNET PUDDING. 62 CUSTARD PUDDINGS. 62 RICE PUDDINGS. 63 BIRD'S NEST...

Ocean Gardens. The History Of The Marine Aquarium

by Henry Noel Humphreys

9 minute read

The wonders of the ocean floor do not reveal themselves to vulgar eyes. As the oracle was inaudible to sacrilegious listeners, and as none but poetic ears heard the cadenced beating of the feet that danced to unearthly music, near the fountain haunted by the Muses of classic fable—so, none but the initiated can see the myriad miracles that each receding tide reveals on the ocean floor. The initiation, however, is not mysterious; there are no dark rites to observe—no Herculean labours to accomplish, before entering upon the noviciate, which at once opens a large area of unexpected pleasures, and an ample field for admiration and investigation. A few elementary works carefully studied, or even this present little book attentively perused, would supply the first helps towards seeing , at all events, a portion of the “wonders of the shore,” as the brilliant author of “Glaucus” has eloquently termed those...

Ice-Caves Of France And Switzerland

by G. F. (George Forrest) Browne

25 minute read

In the summer of 1861, I found myself, with some members of my family, in a small rustic pension in the village of Arzier, one of the highest villages of the pleasant slope by which the Jura passes down to the Lake of Geneva. The son of the house was an intelligent man, with a good knowledge of the natural curiosities which abound in that remarkable range of hills, and under his guidance we saw many strange things. More than once, he spoke of the existence of a glacière at no great distance, and talked of taking us to see it; but we were sceptical on the subject, imagining that glacière was his patois for glacier , and knowing that anything of the glacier kind was out of the question. At last, however, on a hot day in August, we set off with him, armed, at his request, with candles;...

Systematic Status Of The Colubrid Snake, Leptodeira Discolor GüNther

by William Edward Duellman

11 minute read

BY WILLIAM E. DUELLMAN At the time of completing my study of the genus Leptodeira (1958) I had seen no specimens of Leptodeira discolor , a species described by Günther in 1860 and subsequently referred to the genus Hypsiglena by Cope (1887), Boulenger (1894), and Mocquard (1908), and to the genus Pseudoleptodeira by Taylor (1938). Günther's description was based on two syntypes (British Museum of Natural History numbers 1946.1.23.67 and 68) collected in Oaxaca, México, by Auguste Sallé. Information concerning the scutellation and coloration of the syntypes was provided by J. C. Battersby; in my revisionary study ( op. cit. ) this information was included in a short discussion of the species, which was referred to incerta sedis until specimens could be examined and the relationships of the species determined. Through the courtesy of John M. Legler of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, I have been able...

Cruise Of The Revenue-Steamer Corwin In Alaska And The N.W. Arctic Ocean In 1881: Botanical Notes

by John Muir

15 minute read

LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, IN RESPONSE TO A resolution of the House of Representatives transmitting the observations and notes made during the cruise of the revenue-cutter Corwin in 1881. March 3, 1883. —Referred to the Committee on Commerce and ordered to be printed. Treasury Department , March 3, 1883. Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of resolution of the House, dated March 3, 1883, requesting that the Secretary of the Treasury furnish, as soon as convenient, to the Speaker of the House copies of documents in the possession of the Treasury Department containing observations on glaciation, birds, natural history, and the medical notes made upon cruises of revenue-cutters in the year 1881. In reply, I transmit herewith the observations on glaciation in the Arctic Ocean and the Alaska region, made by Mr. John Muir; notes upon the birds and natural history of Bering...

Taxonomic Notes On Mexican Bats Of The Genus RhogeëSsa

by E. Raymond (Eugene Raymond) Hall

8 minute read

Five skins with skulls of Rhogeëssa , collected by J. R. Alcorn in the states of Sonora and Nayarit of western Mexico, were recently received at the Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas. Two other specimens of the same genus, collected by Walter W. Dalquest in the state of Veracruz of eastern Mexico, also are in the Museum of Natural History. With the aim of applying names to these bats they were compared with materials in the United States National Museum (including the Biological Surveys collection) where there are approximately the same number of Mexican specimens of Rhogeëssa as are in the Museum of Natural History. The three kinds of Rhogeëssa named from Mexico are as follows: R. parvula from the Tres Marias Islands off the west coast of Nayarit; R. tumida from Mirador, Veracruz, on the eastern slope of the Republic; and R. gracilis from Piaxtla,...

Life And Letters Of Thomas Henry Huxley

by Thomas Henry Huxley

24 minute read

1825-1842. [In the year 1825 Ealing was as quiet a country village as could be found within a dozen miles of Hyde Park Corner. Here stood a large semi-public school, which had risen to the front rank in numbers and reputation under Dr. Nicholas, of Wadham College, Oxford, who in 1791 became the son-in-law and successor of the previous master. The senior assistant-master in this school was George Huxley, a tall, dark, rather full-faced man, quick tempered, and distinguished, in his son's words, by "that glorious firmness which one's enemies called obstinacy." In the year 1810 he had married Rachel Withers; she bore five sons and three daughters, of whom one son and one daughter died in infancy; the seventh and youngest surviving child was Thomas Henry. George Huxley, the master at Ealing, was the second son of Thomas Huxley and Margaret James, who were married at St. Michael's, Coventry,...

Hints Towards The Formation Of A More Comprehensive Theory Of Life.

by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

11 minute read

The Editor takes this opportunity of returning his best acknowledgments to Sir John Stoddart , LL.D. , to the Rev. James Gillman , Incumbent of Trinity, Lambeth, and to Henry Lee , Esq., Assistant Surgeon to King's College Hospital, for their great kindness, in regard to this publication. The accompanying pages contain the unfinished Sketch of a Theory of Life by S. T. Coleridge. Everything that fell from the pen of that extraordinary man bore latent, as well as more obvious indications of genius, and of its inseparable concomitant—originality. To this general remark the present Essay is far from forming an exception. No one can peruse it, without admiring the author's comprehensive research and profound meditation; but at the same time, partly from the exuberance of his imagination, and partly from an apparent want of method (though, in truth, he had a method of his own, by which he marshalled...

Things To Make

by Archibald Williams

6 minute read

A strong and stable sawing trestle is one of the most important accessories of the carpenter’s shop, whether amateur or professional. The saw is constantly being used, and for it to do its work accurately the material must be properly supported, so that it cannot sway or shift. Anybody who has been in the habit of using a wobbly chair or box to saw on will be surprised to find how much more easily wood can be cut when resting on a trestle like that illustrated by Figs. 1 to 3. The top, a , of the trestle is 29 inches long, 4 inches wide, and 2 inches thick. At one end it has a deep nick, to serve much the same purpose as the notched board used in fretworking; also to hold on edge such things as doors while their edges are planed up. Pushed back against the wall...

House Flies

by L. O. (Leland Ossian) Howard

21 minute read

Chief of the Bureau of Entomology . WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1911. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL U. S. Department of Agriculture , Bureau of Entomology ,      Washington, D. C, May 23, 1911 . Sir : I have the honor to transmit for publication a paper dealing with the subject of the house fly or typhoid fly. Previous publications of this department concerning this insect have been in circular form, but it is desired to make this information more widely available through the medium of a Farmers' Bulletin. With this intention this manuscript has been prepared, being modified and amplified from Circular No. 71 of this bureau, and I respectfully recommend its publication as a Farmers' Bulletin.           Respectfully, L. O. Howard ,      Entomologist and Chief of Bureau .      Hon. James Wilson ,                 Secretary of Agriculture...

The Log Of The Sun: A Chronicle Of Nature's Year

by William Beebe

7 minute read

No fact of natural history is more interesting, or more significant of the poetry of evolution, than the distribution of birds over the entire surface of the world. They have overcome countless obstacles, and adapted themselves to all conditions. The last faltering glance which the Arctic explorer sends toward his coveted goal, ere he admits defeat, shows flocks of snow buntings active with warm life; the storm-tossed mariner in the midst of the sea, is followed, encircled, by the steady, tireless flight of the albatross; the fever-stricken wanderer in tropical jungles listens to the sweet notes of birds amid the stagnant pools; while the thirsty traveller in the desert is ever watched by the distant buzzards. Finally when the intrepid climber, at the risk of life and limb, has painfully made his way to the summit of the most lofty peak, far, far above him, in the blue expanse of...

Literary Pilgrimages Of A Naturalist

by Winthrop Packard

12 minute read

Glimpses of the Country about the Daniel Webster Place Down in Marshfield early morning brings to the roadside troops of blue-eyed chicory blooms, shy memories of fair Pilgrim children who once trod these ways. They do not stay long with the wanderer, these early morning blooms. The turmoil and heat of the mid-summer day close them, but the dreams they bring ramble with the roads in happy freedom from all care among drumlins and kames, vanishing in the flooding heat of some wood-enclosed pasture corner to spring laughingly back again as the way tops a hill and gives a glimpse of the purple velvet of the sea. No wonder Peregrine White, the first fair-skinned child born in New England, strayed from the boundaries of Plymouth and chose his home here. No wonder Daniel Webster, New England’s most vivid great man, wandering southward over the hills in search of a country...

Wild Animals I Have Known

by Ernest Thompson Seton

6 minute read

Books by Ernest Thompson Seton: Stories in This Book: THESE STORIES are true. Although I have left the strict line of historical truth in many places, the animals in this book were all real characters. They lived the lives I have depicted, and showed the stamp of heroism and personality more strongly by far than it has been in the power of my pen to tell. I believe that natural history has lost much by the vague general treatment that is so common. What satisfaction would be derived from a ten-page sketch of the habits and customs of Man? How much more profitable it would be to devote that space to the life of some one great man. This is the principle I have endeavored to apply to my animals. The real personality of the individual, and his view of life are my theme, rather than the ways of the...

Vestiges Of The Natural History Of Creation

by Robert Chambers

23 minute read

It is familiar knowledge that the earth which we inhabit is a globe of somewhat less than 8000 miles in diameter, being one of a series of eleven which revolve at different distances around the sun, and some of which have satellites in like manner revolving around them.  The sun, planets, and satellites, with the less intelligible orbs termed comets, are comprehensively called the solar system, and if we take as the uttermost bounds of this system the orbit of Uranus (though the comets actually have a wider range), we shall find that it occupies a portion of space not less than three thousand six hundred millions of miles in extent.  The mind fails to form an exact notion of a portion of space so immense; but some faint idea of it may be obtained from the fact, that, if the swiftest race-horse ever known had begun to traverse it,...

Aspects Of Plant Life; With Special Reference To The British Flora

by R. Lloyd (Robert Lloyd) Praeger

24 minute read

“I got up the mountain edge, and from the top saw the world stretcht out, cornlands and forest, the river winding among meadow-flats, and right off, like a hem of the sky, the moving sea.”— Maurice Hewlett : Pan and the Young Shepherd . Travelling from Scotland by the London and North-Western Railway, as the train roars down the long incline which leads from Shap to the coastal plain of Lancashire, the eye catches, on the left-hand side, a strange grey hill of bare rock rising abruptly, the last outpost of the mountains. It is so different in appearance from the Westmorland fells which have just been traversed, that one looks at it with curiosity, and desires an opportunity of a nearer acquaintance. During the preceding half-hour we have been passing through country of the type that is familiar in the Lake District and in Wales—picturesque ridgy hills with rocky...

The Lay Of The Land

by Dallas Lore Sharp

17 minute read

By Dallas Lore Sharp AUTHOR OF “WILD LIFE NEAR HOME” AND “ROOF AND MEADOW” With Drawings by Elizabeth Myers Snagg BOSTON AND NEW YORK HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY The Riverside Press Cambridge 1908 COPYRIGHT 1908 BY DALLAS LORE SHARP ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Published September 1908 To the Memory of my Friend William Frank Morrison, M. D. The Muskrats are Building We have had a series of long, heavy rains, and water is standing over the swampy meadow. It is a dreary stretch, this wet, sedgy land in the cold twilight, drearier than any part of the woods or the upland pastures. They are empty, but the meadow is flat and wet, naked and all unsheltered. And a November night is falling. The darkness deepens. A raw wind is rising. At nine o’clock the moon swings round and full to the crest of the ridge, and pours softly over. I button the...

The Snakes Of Europe

by George Albert Boulenger

5 minute read

Snakes, Ophidia —regarded by some authorities as an order of the class Reptilia , by the author as a sub-order of the order Squamata , which includes besides the Lizards, Lacertilia , the Chameleons, Rhiptoglossa , and the extinct Dolichosauria and Mosasauria —may be defined as greatly elongate scaly Reptiles without limbs, or with mere vestiges of the hind pair, without movable eyelids, without ear-opening, with elongate, deeply forked tongue retractile into a basal sheath, with transverse vent and paired copulatory organs, and with the two halves of the lower jaw independently movable, connected at the symphysis by an elastic ligament. The latter character alone distinguishes them from all Lizards, but no single Lizard possesses all the others in combination. In their most highly developed form these Reptiles are adapted for rapid reptation and for swallowing prey much exceeding their own calibre; hence the bones of the skull, on which...

My Household Of Pets

by Théophile Gautier

10 minute read

Caricatures are in existence which represent us clothed in Turkish fashion, sitting cross-legged on cushions, and surrounded by cats, who are fearlessly climbing over our shoulders and even upon our head. Caricature is nothing more than the exaggeration of truth; and truth compels us to own that for animals in general, and for cats in particular, we have, all our lives long, had the tenderness of a Brahmin or of an old maid. The illustrious Byron carried a menagerie of pets about with him even when on his travels, and raised a tomb at Newstead Abbey to his faithful Newfoundland, “Boatswain,” which bears an epitaph of the poet’s own composition. But although we thus share his tastes, we must not be accused of plagiarism; for in our case the tendency manifested itself even before we had begun to learn the alphabet. We are told that a clever man is about...

Personality Of Plants

by Royal Dixon

8 minute read

“ ’Tis a quaint thought, and yet perchance, Sweet blossoms, ye have sprung From flowers that over Eden once Their pristine fragrance flung. ” “In the beginning God created the heaven and earth. And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light!” There is no greater mystery than the mystery of creation. Nowhere is its story told more eloquently and more scientifically than in the opening words of Genesis. All the fruitage of centuries of research but reaffirms this ancient narrative. In the early days of this planet, when its crust was scarcely hardened from the molten state, there reigned what might be called the age of water. The entire surface of the globe was covered with a sea...